- Home
- Find Gizmos
- Browse by Standard (USA)
- Common Core State Standards
- Science: Physics I

# South Carolina - Science: Physics I

## Academic Standards | Adopted: 2014

### 1: : Science and Engineering Practices

H.P.1: : The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.

H.P.1A: : The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers.

H.P.1A.1: : Ask questions to

H.P.1A.1.2: : refine models, explanations, or designs, or

Pendulum Clock

Find the effect of length, mass, and angle on the period of a pendulum. The pendulum is attached to a clock that can be adjusted to tell time accurately. The clock can be located on Earth or Jupiter to determine the effect of gravity. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.1.3: : extend the results of investigations or challenge scientific arguments or claims.

Photoelectric Effect

Shoot a beam of light at a metal plate in a virtual lab and observe the effect on surface electrons. The type of metal as well as the wavelength and amount of light can be adjusted. An electric field can be created to resist the electrons and measure their initial energies. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.2: : Develop, use, and refine models to

H.P.1A.2.1: : understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships,

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Center of Mass

Drag blocks onto a two-dimensional surface and observe the effects on the center of mass. Use a grid to calculate the coordinates of the center of mass. Investigate predefined shapes or your own arrangements of blocks. 5 Minute Preview

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Determining a Spring Constant

Place a pan on the end of a hanging spring. Measure how much the spring stretches when various masses are added to the pan. Create a graph of displacement vs. mass to determine the spring constant of the spring. 5 Minute Preview

Doppler Shift

Observe sound waves emitted from a moving vehicle. Measure the frequency of sound waves in front of and behind the vehicle as it moves, illustrating the Doppler effect. The frequency of sound waves, speed of the source, and the speed of sound can all be manipulated. Motion of the vehicle can be linear, oscillating, or circular. 5 Minute Preview

Gravity Pitch

Imagine a gigantic pitcher standing on Earth, ready to hurl a huge baseball. What will happen as the ball is thrown harder and harder? Find out with the Gravity Pitch Gizmo. Observe the path of the ball when it is thrown at different velocities. Throw the ball on different planets to see how each planet's gravity affects the ball. 5 Minute Preview

Half-life

Investigate the decay of a radioactive substance. The half-life and the number of radioactive atoms can be adjusted, and theoretical or random decay can be observed. Data can be interpreted visually using a dynamic graph, a bar chart, and a table. Determine the half-lives of two sample isotopes as well as samples with randomly generated half-lives. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

Observe and compare objects of different shapes as they roll or slide down an inclined plane. Compare the percentages of translational and rotational kinetic energy for each object, and see how this affects how quickly each object moves. The slope of each ramp can be adjusted, and a variety of materials can be used for the objects and ramps. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

Melting Points

Every substance has unique transition points, or temperatures at which one phase (solid, liquid, or gas) transitions to another. Use a realistic melting point apparatus to measure the melting points, boiling points, and/or sublimation points of different substances and observe what these phase changes look like at the microscopic level. Based on the transition points, make inferences about the relative strengths of the forces holding these substances together. 5 Minute Preview

Nuclear Reactions

Explore examples of nuclear fusion and fission reactions. Follow the steps of the proton-proton chain, CNO cycle, and fission of uranium-235. Write balanced nuclear equations for each step, and compare the energy produced in each process. 5 Minute Preview

Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws

Learn Kepler's three laws of planetary motion by examining the orbit of a planet around a star. The initial position, velocity, and mass of the planet can be varied as well as the mass of the star. The foci and centers of orbits can be displayed and compared to the location of the star. The area swept out by the planet in a given time period can be measured, and data on orbital radii and periods can be plotted in several ways. 5 Minute Preview

Programmable Rover

In this introduction to coding, program a rover to explore the surface of Mars. Start by using tiles to create simple programs involving moving forward or backward, turns, jumps, loops, and picking up rock samples. Then use text instructions to optimize your code. Use your skills to program the rover to complete six challenging missions on Mars. 5 Minute Preview

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

Waves

Observe and measure transverse, longitudinal, and combined waves on a model of a spring moved by a hand. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of the hand, and the tension and density of the spring. The speed and power of the waves is reported, and the wavelength and amplitude can be measured. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.2.2: : test devices or solutions, or

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Programmable Rover

In this introduction to coding, program a rover to explore the surface of Mars. Start by using tiles to create simple programs involving moving forward or backward, turns, jumps, loops, and picking up rock samples. Then use text instructions to optimize your code. Use your skills to program the rover to complete six challenging missions on Mars. 5 Minute Preview

Trebuchet

Design your own trebuchet to fling a projectile at a castle wall. All of the dimensions of the trebuchet can be adjusted, as well as the masses of the counterweight and payload. Select a target on the Launch tab, or just see how far your projectile will go. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.2.3: : communicate ideas to others.

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Nuclear Reactions

Explore examples of nuclear fusion and fission reactions. Follow the steps of the proton-proton chain, CNO cycle, and fission of uranium-235. Write balanced nuclear equations for each step, and compare the energy produced in each process. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

Observe light rays that pass through a convex or concave lens. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the lens and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

Observe light rays that reflect from a convex or concave mirror. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the mirror and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.3: : Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations:

H.P.1A.3.1: : formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information,

Crumple Zones

Real-Time Histogram

Try to click your mouse once every 2 seconds. The time interval between each click is recorded, as well as the error and percent error. Data can be displayed in a table, histogram, or scatter plot. Observe and measure the characteristics of the resulting distribution when large amounts of data are collected. 5 Minute Preview

Sight vs. Sound Reactions

Measure your reaction time by clicking your mouse as quickly as possible when visual or auditory stimuli are presented. The individual response times are recorded, as well as the mean and standard deviation for each test. A histogram of data shows overall trends in sight and sound response times. The type of test as well as the symbols and sounds used are chosen by the user. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.3.2: : identify materials, procedures, and variables,

Pendulum Clock

Find the effect of length, mass, and angle on the period of a pendulum. The pendulum is attached to a clock that can be adjusted to tell time accurately. The clock can be located on Earth or Jupiter to determine the effect of gravity. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.3.3: : use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and

Crumple Zones

Feel the Heat

Have you ever used a glove warmer to keep your hands warm? How about an instant cold pack to treat an injury? In the Feel the Heat Gizmo, create your own hot and cold packs using various salts dissolved in water and different bag materials. Learn about exothermic and endothermic processes and how energy is absorbed or released when bonds are broken and new bonds form. 5 Minute Preview

Melting Points

Every substance has unique transition points, or temperatures at which one phase (solid, liquid, or gas) transitions to another. Use a realistic melting point apparatus to measure the melting points, boiling points, and/or sublimation points of different substances and observe what these phase changes look like at the microscopic level. Based on the transition points, make inferences about the relative strengths of the forces holding these substances together. 5 Minute Preview

Programmable Rover

In this introduction to coding, program a rover to explore the surface of Mars. Start by using tiles to create simple programs involving moving forward or backward, turns, jumps, loops, and picking up rock samples. Then use text instructions to optimize your code. Use your skills to program the rover to complete six challenging missions on Mars. 5 Minute Preview

Triple Beam Balance

Learn how to determine the mass of an object using a triple beam balance. The mass of a variety of objects can be determined using this simulated version of a common real-world laboratory tool for measurement. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.3.4: : record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.

Crumple Zones

Feel the Heat

Have you ever used a glove warmer to keep your hands warm? How about an instant cold pack to treat an injury? In the Feel the Heat Gizmo, create your own hot and cold packs using various salts dissolved in water and different bag materials. Learn about exothermic and endothermic processes and how energy is absorbed or released when bonds are broken and new bonds form. 5 Minute Preview

Melting Points

Every substance has unique transition points, or temperatures at which one phase (solid, liquid, or gas) transitions to another. Use a realistic melting point apparatus to measure the melting points, boiling points, and/or sublimation points of different substances and observe what these phase changes look like at the microscopic level. Based on the transition points, make inferences about the relative strengths of the forces holding these substances together. 5 Minute Preview

Pendulum Clock

Find the effect of length, mass, and angle on the period of a pendulum. The pendulum is attached to a clock that can be adjusted to tell time accurately. The clock can be located on Earth or Jupiter to determine the effect of gravity. 5 Minute Preview

Period of Mass on a Spring

Measure the period of a mass on the end of a spring. Determine the effects of gravitational acceleration, mass, and the spring constant on the period of the spring. Create an equation for the period of a spring given its mass and spring constant. 5 Minute Preview

Programmable Rover

Reaction Time 1 (Graphs and Statistics)

Test your reaction time by catching a falling ruler or clicking a target. Create a data set of experiment results, and calculate the range, mode, median, and mean of your data. Data can be displayed on a list, table, bar graph or dot plot. The Reaction Time 1 Student Exploration focuses on range, mode, and median. 5 Minute Preview

Real-Time Histogram

Try to click your mouse once every 2 seconds. The time interval between each click is recorded, as well as the error and percent error. Data can be displayed in a table, histogram, or scatter plot. Observe and measure the characteristics of the resulting distribution when large amounts of data are collected. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.4: : Analyze and interpret data from informational texts and data collected from investigations using a range of methods (such as tabulation, graphing, or statistical analysis) to

H.P.1A.4.1: : reveal patterns and construct meaning,

Crumple Zones

Diffusion

Explore the motion of particles as they bounce around from one side of a room to the other through an adjustable gap or partition. The mass of the particles can be adjusted, as well as the temperature of the room and the initial number of particles. In a real-world context, this can be used to learn about how odors travel, fluids move through gaps, the thermodynamics of gases, and statistical probability. 5 Minute Preview

Effect of Environment on New Life Form

Using the scientific method, control the environmental conditions for a fictional alien organism in order to learn how the organism responds to changes in conditions. Sunlight, water, and temperature can be varied to determine their effects on the shape of the aliens. 5 Minute Preview

Feel the Heat

Have you ever used a glove warmer to keep your hands warm? How about an instant cold pack to treat an injury? In the Feel the Heat Gizmo, create your own hot and cold packs using various salts dissolved in water and different bag materials. Learn about exothermic and endothermic processes and how energy is absorbed or released when bonds are broken and new bonds form. 5 Minute Preview

Half-life

Investigate the decay of a radioactive substance. The half-life and the number of radioactive atoms can be adjusted, and theoretical or random decay can be observed. Data can be interpreted visually using a dynamic graph, a bar chart, and a table. Determine the half-lives of two sample isotopes as well as samples with randomly generated half-lives. 5 Minute Preview

Melting Points

Pendulum Clock

Programmable Rover

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.4.2: : support or refute hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs, or

Crumple Zones

Diffusion

Explore the motion of particles as they bounce around from one side of a room to the other through an adjustable gap or partition. The mass of the particles can be adjusted, as well as the temperature of the room and the initial number of particles. In a real-world context, this can be used to learn about how odors travel, fluids move through gaps, the thermodynamics of gases, and statistical probability. 5 Minute Preview

Effect of Environment on New Life Form

Using the scientific method, control the environmental conditions for a fictional alien organism in order to learn how the organism responds to changes in conditions. Sunlight, water, and temperature can be varied to determine their effects on the shape of the aliens. 5 Minute Preview

Feel the Heat

Melting Points

Pendulum Clock

Programmable Rover

H.P.1A.4.3: : evaluate the strength of conclusions.

Diffusion

Explore the motion of particles as they bounce around from one side of a room to the other through an adjustable gap or partition. The mass of the particles can be adjusted, as well as the temperature of the room and the initial number of particles. In a real-world context, this can be used to learn about how odors travel, fluids move through gaps, the thermodynamics of gases, and statistical probability. 5 Minute Preview

Effect of Environment on New Life Form

Using the scientific method, control the environmental conditions for a fictional alien organism in order to learn how the organism responds to changes in conditions. Sunlight, water, and temperature can be varied to determine their effects on the shape of the aliens. 5 Minute Preview

Pendulum Clock

H.P.1A.5: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to

H.P.1A.5.1: : use and manipulate appropriate English and metric units,

Crumple Zones

Feel the Heat

Unit Conversions

Use unit conversion tiles to convert from one unit to another. Tiles can be flipped to cancel units. Convert between metric units or between metric and U.S. customary units. Solve distance, time, speed, mass, volume, and density problems. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.5.2: : express relationships between variables for models and investigations, or

Crumple Zones

Determining a Spring Constant

Place a pan on the end of a hanging spring. Measure how much the spring stretches when various masses are added to the pan. Create a graph of displacement vs. mass to determine the spring constant of the spring. 5 Minute Preview

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Feel the Heat

Pendulum Clock

Photoelectric Effect

Shoot a beam of light at a metal plate in a virtual lab and observe the effect on surface electrons. The type of metal as well as the wavelength and amount of light can be adjusted. An electric field can be created to resist the electrons and measure their initial energies. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.6: : Construct explanations of phenomena using

H.P.1A.6.1: : primary or secondary scientific evidence and models,

Crumple Zones

Feel the Heat

Melting Points

Programmable Rover

H.P.1A.6.2: : conclusions from scientific investigations,

Programmable Rover

H.P.1A.6.3: : predictions based on observations and measurements, or

Feel the Heat

Melting Points

Cell Respiration - High School

As a medical toxicologist, students learn about cell respiration to save the life of a CIA agent that has been poisoned. Video Preview

H.P.1A.6.4: : data communicated in graphs, tables, or diagrams.

Crumple Zones

Feel the Heat

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

Observe light rays that pass through a convex or concave lens. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the lens and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

Observe light rays that reflect from a convex or concave mirror. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the mirror and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Seasons Around the World

Use a three dimensional view of the Earth, Moon and Sun to explore seasonal changes at a variety of locations. Strengthen your knowledge of global climate patterns by comparing solar energy input at the Poles to the Equator. Manipulate Earth's axis to increase or diminish seasonal changes. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1A.8: : Obtain and evaluate scientific information to

H.P.1A.8.3: : develop models,

Carbon Cycle

Follow the path of a carbon atom through the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. Manipulate a simplified model to see how human activities and other factors affect the amount of atmospheric carbon today and in the future. 5 Minute Preview

Electromagnetic Induction

Explore how a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current. A magnet can be moved up or down at a constant velocity below a loop of wire, or the loop of wire may be dragged in any direction or rotated. The magnetic and electric fields can be displayed, as well as the magnetic flux and the current in the wire. 5 Minute Preview

Nuclear Reactions

Explore examples of nuclear fusion and fission reactions. Follow the steps of the proton-proton chain, CNO cycle, and fission of uranium-235. Write balanced nuclear equations for each step, and compare the energy produced in each process. 5 Minute Preview

Ripple Tank

H.P.1B: : Technology is any modification to the natural world created to fulfill the wants and needs of humans. The engineering design process involves a series of iterative steps used to solve a problem and often leads to the development of a new or improved technology.

H.P.1B.1: : Construct devices or design solutions using scientific knowledge to solve specific problems or needs:

H.P.1B.1.3: : generate and communicate ideas for possible devices or solutions,

Programmable Rover

Trebuchet

Design your own trebuchet to fling a projectile at a castle wall. All of the dimensions of the trebuchet can be adjusted, as well as the masses of the counterweight and payload. Select a target on the Launch tab, or just see how far your projectile will go. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1B.1.4: : build and test devices or solutions,

Pendulum Clock

Programmable Rover

Trebuchet

Design your own trebuchet to fling a projectile at a castle wall. All of the dimensions of the trebuchet can be adjusted, as well as the masses of the counterweight and payload. Select a target on the Launch tab, or just see how far your projectile will go. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.1B.1.5: : determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed, and

Programmable Rover

Trebuchet

H.P.1B.1.6: : communicate the results.

Programmable Rover

Trebuchet

### 2: : Interactions and Forces

H.P.2: : The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted using the concept of forces.

H.P.2A: : The linear motion of an object can be described by its displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

H.P.2A.1: : Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations on the straight-line motion of an object to include an interpretation of the object’s displacement, time of motion, constant velocity, average velocity, and constant acceleration.

Crumple Zones

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2A.3: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply formulas related to an object’s displacement, constant velocity, average velocity and constant acceleration. Interpret the meaning of the sign of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

Crumple Zones

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2A.4: : Develop and use models to represent an object’s displacement, velocity, and acceleration (including vector diagrams, data tables, motion graphs, dot motion diagrams, and mathematical formulas).

Crumple Zones

Distance-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Feed the Monkey (Projectile Motion)

Fire a banana cannon at a monkey in a tree. The monkey drops from the tree at the moment the banana is fired from the cannon. Determine where to aim the cannon so the monkey catches the banana. The position of the cannon, launch angle and initial velocity of the banana can be varied. Students can observe the velocity vectors and the paths of the monkey and banana. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2A.5: : Construct explanations for what is meant by “constant” velocity and “constant” acceleration (including writing descriptions of the object’s motion and calculating the sign and magnitude of the slope of the line on a position-time and velocity-time graph).

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2B: : The interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion.

H.P.2B.1: : Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations involving the motion of an object to determine the relationships among the net force on the object, its mass, and its acceleration (Newton’s second law of motion, Fnet = ma) and analyze collected data to construct an explanation of the object’s motion using Newton’s second law of motion.

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Crumple Zones

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2B.2: : Use a free-body diagram to represent the forces on an object.

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2B.3: : Use Newton’s Third Law of Motion to construct explanations of everyday phenomena (such as a hammer hitting a nail, the thrust of a rocket engine, the lift of an airplane wing, or a book at rest on a table) and identify the force pairs in each given situation involving two objects and compare the size and direction of each force.

Crumple Zones

H.P.2B.5: : Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to support the Law of Conservation of Momentum in the context of two objects moving linearly (p=mv).

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2B.7: : Apply physics principles to design a device that minimizes the force on an object during a collision and construct an explanation for the design.

Crumple Zones

H.P.2B.8: : Develop and use models (such as a computer simulation, drawing, or demonstration) and Newton’s Second Law of Motion to construct explanations for why an object moving at a constant speed in a circle is accelerating.

Uniform Circular Motion

Measure the position, velocity, and acceleration (both components and magnitude) of an object undergoing circular motion. The radius and velocity of the object can be controlled, along with the mass of the object. The forces acting on the object also can be recorded. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2C: : The contact interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the normal, tension, applied, and frictional forces acting on the objects and by applying Newton’s Laws of Motion.

H.P.2C.1: : Use a free-body diagram to represent the normal, tension (or elastic), applied, and frictional forces on an object.

Atwood Machine

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2C.4: : Analyze and interpret data on force and displacement to determine the spring (or elastic) constant of an elastic material (Hooke’s Law, F=-kx), including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield the spring constant, k.

Determining a Spring Constant

Place a pan on the end of a hanging spring. Measure how much the spring stretches when various masses are added to the pan. Create a graph of displacement vs. mass to determine the spring constant of the spring. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2D: : The non-contact (at a distance) interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. These non-contact forces can be represented as fields.

H.P.2D.2: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the relationships among the masses of two objects, the attractive gravitational force between them, and the distance between them (Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, F=Gm1m2/r²).

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2D.4: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the relationships among the charges of two particles, the attractive or repulsive electrical force between them, and the distance between them (Coulomb’s Law. F=kq1q2/r²).

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

H.P.2D.5: : Construct explanations for how the non-contact forces of gravity, electricity, and magnetism can be modeled as fields by sketching field diagrams for two given charges, two massive objects, or a bar magnet and use these diagrams to qualitatively interpret the direction and magnitude of the force at a particular location in the field.

Magnetic Induction

Measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field at different locations in a laboratory. Compare the strength of the induced magnetic field to Earth's magnetic field. The direction and magnitude of the inducting current can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2D.6: : Use a free-body diagram to represent the gravitational force on an object.

Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

Observe and compare objects of different shapes as they roll or slide down an inclined plane. Compare the percentages of translational and rotational kinetic energy for each object, and see how this affects how quickly each object moves. The slope of each ramp can be adjusted, and a variety of materials can be used for the objects and ramps. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Pith Ball Lab

H.P.2D.7: : Use a free-body diagram to represent the electrical force on a charge.

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

H.P.2D.8: : Develop and use models (such as computer simulations, drawings, or demonstrations) to explain the relationship between moving charged particles (current) and magnetic forces and fields.

Electromagnetic Induction

Explore how a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current. A magnet can be moved up or down at a constant velocity below a loop of wire, or the loop of wire may be dragged in any direction or rotated. The magnetic and electric fields can be displayed, as well as the magnetic flux and the current in the wire. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.2D.9: : Use Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation and Newton’s second law of motion to explain why all objects near Earth’s surface have the same acceleration.

Atwood Machine

H.P.2D.10: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply Fnet = ma to analyze problems involving non-contact interactions, including objects in free fall.

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

### 3: : Interactions and Energy

H.P.3: : The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of the conservation of energy.

H.P.3A: : Work and energy are equivalent to each other. Work is defined as the product of displacement and the force causing that displacement; this results in the transfer of mechanical energy. Therefore, in the case of mechanical energy, energy is seen as the ability to do work. This is called the work-energy principle. The rate at which work is done (or energy is transformed) is called power. For machines that do useful work for humans, the ratio of useful power output is the efficiency of the machine. For all energies and in all instances, energy in a closed system remains constant.

H.P.3A.1: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to determine the work done by a constant force (W㷽).

Pulley Lab

Use a pulley system to lift a heavy weight to a certain height. Measure the force required to lift the weight using up to three fixed and three movable pulleys. The weight to be lifted and the efficiency of the pulley system can be adjusted, and the height of the weight and the total input distance are reported. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3A.2: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with the work done on or by an object and its change in energy.

Pulley Lab

Use a pulley system to lift a heavy weight to a certain height. Measure the force required to lift the weight using up to three fixed and three movable pulleys. The weight to be lifted and the efficiency of the pulley system can be adjusted, and the height of the weight and the total input distance are reported. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3A.3: : Obtain information to communicate how energy is conserved in elastic and inelastic collisions.

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3B: : Mechanical energy refers to a combination of motion (kinetic energy) and stored energy (potential energy). When only conservative forces act on an object and when no mass is converted to energy, mechanical energy is conserved. Gravitational and electrical potential energy can be modeled as energy stored in the fields created by massive objects or charged particles.

H.P.3B.1: : Develop and use models (such as computer simulations, drawings, bar graphs, and diagrams) to exemplify the transformation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act.

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

Trebuchet

H.P.3B.2: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to argue the validity of the conservation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act (KE = ½ mv², PEg = mgh, PEe = ½ kx²).

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Trebuchet

H.P.3C: : When there is a temperature difference between two objects, an interaction occurs in the form of a transfer of thermal energy (heat) from the hotter object to the cooler object. Thermal energy is the total internal kinetic energy of the molecules and/or atoms of a system and is related to temperature, which is the average kinetic energy of the particles of a system. Energy always flows from hot to cold through the processes of conduction, convection, or radiation.

H.P.3C.2: : Analyze and interpret data to describe the thermal conductivity of different materials.

Feel the Heat

H.P.3C.3: : Develop and use models (such as a drawing or a small-scale greenhouse) to exemplify the energy balance of the Earth (including conduction, convection, and radiation).

Greenhouse Effect - Metric

Within this simulated region of land, daytime's rising temperature and the falling temperature at night can be measured, along with heat flow in and out of the system. The amount of greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere can be adjusted through time, and the long-term effects can be investigated. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3D: : Sound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave that is the result of vibrations (kinetic energy) that transfer energy through a medium.

H.P.3D.3: : Develop and use models to explain what happens to the observed frequency of a sound wave when the relative positions of an observer and wave source changes (Doppler effect).

Doppler Shift

Observe sound waves emitted from a moving vehicle. Measure the frequency of sound waves in front of and behind the vehicle as it moves, illustrating the Doppler effect. The frequency of sound waves, speed of the source, and the speed of sound can all be manipulated. Motion of the vehicle can be linear, oscillating, or circular. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3D.4: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems that relate the frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, velocity, and energy of sound waves.

Ripple Tank

Waves

Observe and measure transverse, longitudinal, and combined waves on a model of a spring moved by a hand. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of the hand, and the tension and density of the spring. The speed and power of the waves is reported, and the wavelength and amplitude can be measured. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3E: : During electric circuit interactions, electrical energy (energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by a current) is transformed into other forms of energy and transferred to circuit devices and the surroundings. Charged particles and magnets create fields that store energy. Magnetic fields exert forces on moving charged particles. Changing magnetic fields cause electrons in wires to move, creating current.

H.P.3E.1: : Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the relationship between the current and potential drop (voltage) across an Ohmic resistor. Analyze and interpret data to verify Ohm’s law, including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield R, the resistance of the resistor.

Circuits

Build electrical circuits using batteries, light bulbs, resistors, fuses, wires, and a switch. An ammeter, a voltmeter and an ohmmeter are available for measuring current, voltage and resistance throughout the circuit. The voltage of the battery and the precision of the meters can be adjusted. Multiple circuits can be built for comparison. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3E.2: : Develop and use models (such as circuit drawings and mathematical representations) to explain how an electric circuit works by tracing the path of the electrons and including concepts of energy transformation, transfer, and the conservation of energy and electric charge.

Circuit Builder

Create circuits using batteries, light bulbs, switches, fuses, and a variety of materials. Examine series and parallel circuits, conductors and insulators, and the effects of battery voltage. Thousands of different circuits can be built with this Gizmo. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3E.5: : Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine how connecting resistors in series and in parallel affects the power (brightness) of light bulbs.

Circuit Builder

Create circuits using batteries, light bulbs, switches, fuses, and a variety of materials. Examine series and parallel circuits, conductors and insulators, and the effects of battery voltage. Thousands of different circuits can be built with this Gizmo. 5 Minute Preview

Circuits

Build electrical circuits using batteries, light bulbs, resistors, fuses, wires, and a switch. An ammeter, a voltmeter and an ohmmeter are available for measuring current, voltage and resistance throughout the circuit. The voltage of the battery and the precision of the meters can be adjusted. Multiple circuits can be built for comparison. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3E.6: : Obtain and communicate information about the relationship between magnetism and electric currents to explain the role of magnets and coils of wire in microphones, speakers, generators, and motors.

Electromagnetic Induction

Explore how a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current. A magnet can be moved up or down at a constant velocity below a loop of wire, or the loop of wire may be dragged in any direction or rotated. The magnetic and electric fields can be displayed, as well as the magnetic flux and the current in the wire. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3F: : During radiant energy interactions, energy can be transferred over long distances without a medium. Radiation can be modeled as an electromagnetic wave or as a stream of discrete packets of energy (photons); all radiation travels at the same speed in a vacuum (speed of light). This electromagnetic radiation is a major source of energy for life on Earth.

H.P.3F.2: : Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the interaction between the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and various objects (including mirrors, lenses, barriers with two slits, and diffraction gratings) and to construct explanations of the behavior of light (reflection, refraction, transmission, interference) in these instances using models (including ray diagrams).

Basic Prism

Shine white light or a single-color beam through a prism. Explore how a prism refracts light and investigate the factors that affect the amount of refraction. The index of refraction of the prism, width of the prism, prism angle, light angle, and light wavelength can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

Observe light rays that pass through a convex or concave lens. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the lens and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

Observe light rays that reflect from a convex or concave mirror. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the mirror and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Refraction

Determine the angle of refraction for a light beam moving from one medium to another. The angle of incidence and each index of refraction can be varied. Using the tools provided, the angle of refraction can be measured, and the wavelength and frequency of the waves in each substance can be compared as well. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3F.3: : Use drawings to exemplify the behavior of light passing from one transparent medium to another and construct explanations for this behavior.

Basic Prism

Shine white light or a single-color beam through a prism. Explore how a prism refracts light and investigate the factors that affect the amount of refraction. The index of refraction of the prism, width of the prism, prism angle, light angle, and light wavelength can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3F.4: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems that relate the frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, velocity, and energy of light.

Ripple Tank

H.P.3G: : Nuclear energy is energy stored in an atom’s nucleus; this energy holds the atom together and is called binding energy. Binding energy is a reflection of the equivalence of mass and energy; the mass of any nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the individual constituent nucleons that comprise it. Binding energy is also a measure of the strong nuclear force that exists in the nucleus and is responsible for overcoming the repulsive forces among protons. The strong and weak nuclear forces, gravity, and the electromagnetic force are the fundamental forces in nature. Strong and weak nuclear forces determine nuclear sizes, stability, and rates of radioactive decay. At the subatomic scale, the conservation of energy becomes the conservation of mass-energy.

H.P.3G.1: : Develop and use models to represent the basic structure of an atom (including protons, neutrons, electrons, and the nucleus).

Bohr Model of Hydrogen

Shoot a stream of photons through a container of hydrogen gas. Observe how photons of certain energies are absorbed, causing the electron to move to different orbits. Build the spectrum of hydrogen based on photons that are absorbed and emitted. 5 Minute Preview

Bohr Model: Introduction

Fire photons to determine the spectrum of a gas. Observe how an absorbed photon changes the orbit of an electron and how a photon is emitted from an excited electron. Calculate the energies of absorbed and emitted photons based on energy level diagrams. The light energy produced by the laser can be modulated, and a lamp can be used to view the entire absorption spectrum at once. 5 Minute Preview

Element Builder

Use protons, neutrons, and electrons to build elements. As the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons changes, information such as the name and symbol of the element, the Z, N, and A numbers, the electron dot diagram, and the group and period from the periodic table are shown. Each element is classified as a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal, and its state at room temperature is also given. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3G.2: : Develop and use models (such as drawings, diagrams, computer simulations, and demonstrations) to communicate the similarities and differences between fusion and fission. Give examples of fusion and fission reactions and include the concept of conservation of mass-energy.

Nuclear Reactions

H.P.3G.3: : Construct scientific arguments to support claims for or against the viability of fusion and fission as sources of usable energy.

Nuclear Reactions

H.P.3G.4: : Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the products of radioactive decay (including alpha, beta, and gamma decay).

Nuclear Decay

Observe the five main types of nuclear decay: alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, positron emission, and electron capture. Write nuclear equations by determining the mass numbers and atomic numbers of daughter products and emitted particles. 5 Minute Preview

H.P.3G.5: : Obtain information to communicate how radioactive decay processes have practical applications (such as food preservation, cancer treatments, fossil and rock dating, and as radioisotopic medical tracers).

Half-life

Investigate the decay of a radioactive substance. The half-life and the number of radioactive atoms can be adjusted, and theoretical or random decay can be observed. Data can be interpreted visually using a dynamic graph, a bar chart, and a table. Determine the half-lives of two sample isotopes as well as samples with randomly generated half-lives. 5 Minute Preview

Correlation last revised: 5/18/2021

About STEM Cases

Students assume the role of a scientist trying to solve a real world problem. They use scientific practices to collect and analyze data, and form and test a hypothesis as they solve the problems.

Each STEM Case uses realtime reporting to show live student results.

Introduction to the Heatmap

STEM Cases take between 30-90 minutes for students to complete, depending on the case.

Student progress is automatically saved so that STEM Cases can be completed over multiple sessions.

Multiple grade-appropriate versions, or levels, exist for each STEM Case.

Each STEM Case level has an associated Handbook. These are interactive guides that focus on the science concepts underlying the case.

How Free Gizmos Work

Start teaching with
**20-40 Free Gizmos**. See the full list.

Access **lesson materials** for Free Gizmos including teacher guides, lesson plans, and more.

All other Gizmos are limited to a **5 Minute Preview** and can only be used for 5 minutes a day.

**Free Gizmos change each semester.** The new collection will be available January 1 and July 1.

Find Your Solution

Start playing, exploring and learning today with a free account. Or contact us for a quote or demo.

Sign Up For Free Get a Quote