# Florida - Mathematics: 8th Grade

## Benchmarks for Excellent Student Thinking Standards | Adopted: 2020

### MA.8.NSO: : Number Sense and Operations

MA.8.NSO.1: : Solve problems involving rational numbers, including numbers in scientific notation, and extend the understanding of rational numbers to irrational numbers.

MA.8.NSO.1.1: : Extend previous understanding of rational numbers to define irrational numbers within the real number system. Locate an approximate value of a numerical expression involving irrational numbers on a number line.

Circumference and Area of Circles

Resize a circle and compare its radius, circumference, and area. 5 Minute Preview

Square Roots

Explore the meaning of square roots using an area model. Use the side length of a square to find the square root of a decimal number or a whole number. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.NSO.1.2: : Plot, order and compare rational and irrational numbers, represented in various forms.

Comparing and Ordering Decimals

Use grids to model decimal numbers and compare them graphically. Then compare the numbers on a number line. 5 Minute Preview

Ordering Percents, Fractions, and Decimals Greater Than 1

Compare and order numbers greater than 1 using area grids and a number line. Examine the numbers represented as percents, improper fractions, and decimals. 5 Minute Preview

Rational Numbers, Opposites, and Absolute Values

Use a number line to compare rational numbers. Change values by dragging points on the number line. Compare the opposites and absolute values of the numbers. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.NSO.1.3: : Extend previous understanding of the Laws of Exponents to include integer exponents. Apply the Laws of Exponents to evaluate numerical expressions and generate equivalent numerical expressions, limited to integer exponents and rational number bases, with procedural fluency.

Dividing Exponential Expressions

Choose the correct steps to divide exponential expressions. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Exponents and Power Rules

Choose the correct steps to simplify expressions with exponents using the rules of exponents and powers. Use feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Multiplying Exponential Expressions

Choose the correct steps to multiply exponential expressions. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.NSO.1.4: : Express numbers in scientific notation to represent and approximate very large or very small quantities. Determine how many times larger or smaller one number is compared to a second number.

Number Systems

Explore number systems and convert numbers from one base to another using counter beads in place-value columns. 5 Minute Preview

Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

Use the Unit Conversions Gizmo to explore the concepts of scientific notation and significant digits. Convert numbers to and from scientific notation. Determine the number of significant digits in a measured value and in a calculation. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.NSO.1.5: : Add, subtract, multiply and divide numbers expressed in scientific notation with procedural fluency.

Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

Use the Unit Conversions Gizmo to explore the concepts of scientific notation and significant digits. Convert numbers to and from scientific notation. Determine the number of significant digits in a measured value and in a calculation. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.NSO.1.6: : Solve real-world problems involving operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation.

Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

Use the Unit Conversions Gizmo to explore the concepts of scientific notation and significant digits. Convert numbers to and from scientific notation. Determine the number of significant digits in a measured value and in a calculation. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.NSO.1.7: : Solve multi-step mathematical and real-world problems involving the order of operations with rational numbers including exponents and radicals.

Order of Operations

Select and evaluate the operations in an expression following the correct order of operations. 5 Minute Preview

### MA.8.AR: : Algebraic Reasoning

MA.8.AR.1: : Generate equivalent algebraic expressions.

MA.8.AR.1.1: : Apply the Laws of Exponents to generate equivalent algebraic expressions, limited to integer exponents and monomial bases.

Dividing Exponential Expressions

Choose the correct steps to divide exponential expressions. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Exponents and Power Rules

Choose the correct steps to simplify expressions with exponents using the rules of exponents and powers. Use feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Multiplying Exponential Expressions

Choose the correct steps to multiply exponential expressions. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.1.2: : Apply properties of operations to multiply two linear expressions with rational coefficients.

Factoring Special Products

Choose the correct steps to factor a polynomial involving perfect-square binomials, differences of squares, or constant factors. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Modeling the Factorization of *ax*^{2}+*bx*+*c*

Factor a polynomial with a leading coefficient greater than 1 using an area model. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose any mistakes. 5 Minute Preview

Modeling the Factorization of *x*^{2}+*bx*+*c*

Factor a polynomial with a leading coefficient equal to 1 using an area model. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose any mistakes. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.1.3: : Rewrite the sum of two algebraic expressions having a common monomial factor as a common factor multiplied by the sum of two algebraic expressions.

Equivalent Algebraic Expressions II

Continue your meteoric rise in the undersea culinary world in this follow-up to Equivalent Algebraic Expressions I. Make equivalent expressions by using the distributive property forwards and backwards, sort expressions by equivalence, and personally assist Chef Grumpy himself with a project that will bring him (and maybe you) fame and fortune. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.2: : Solve multi-step one-variable equations and inequalities.

MA.8.AR.2.1: : Solve multi-step linear equations in one variable, with rational number coefficients. Include equations with variables on both sides.

Modeling and Solving Two-Step Equations

Solve a two-step equation using a cup-and-counter model. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose and correct incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Equations by Graphing Each Side

Solve an equation by graphing each side and finding the intersection of the lines. Vary the coefficients in the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Equations on the Number Line

Solve an equation involving decimals using dynamic arrows on a number line. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Two-Step Equations

Choose the correct steps to solve a two-step equation. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.2.3: : Given an equation in the form of x² = p and x³ = q, where p is a whole number and q is an integer, determine the real solutions.

Square Roots

Explore the meaning of square roots using an area model. Use the side length of a square to find the square root of a decimal number or a whole number. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.3: : Extend understanding of proportional relationships to two-variable linear equations.

MA.8.AR.3.1: : Determine if a linear relationship is also a proportional relationship.

Direct and Inverse Variation

Adjust the constant of variation and explore how the graph of the direct or inverse variation function changes in response. Compare direct variation functions to inverse variation functions. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.3.2: : Given a table, graph or written description of a linear relationship, determine the slope.

Point-Slope Form of a Line

Compare the point-slope form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Slope

Explore the slope of a line, and learn how to calculate slope. Adjust the line by moving points that are on the line, and see how its slope changes. 5 Minute Preview

Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

Compare the slope-intercept form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.3.3: : Given a table, graph or written description of a linear relationship, write an equation in slope-intercept form.

Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

Compare the slope-intercept form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.3.4: : Given a mathematical or real-world context, graph a two-variable linear equation from a written description, a table or an equation in slope-intercept form.

Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

Compare the slope-intercept form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.3.5: : Given a real-world context, determine and interpret the slope and y-intercept of a two-variable linear equation from a written description, a table, a graph or an equation in slope-intercept form.

Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)

Experiment with a system of two lines representing a cat-and-mouse chase. Adjust the speeds of the cat and mouse and the head start of the mouse, and immediately see the effects on the graph and on the chase. Connect real-world meaning to slope, y-intercept, and the intersection of lines. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

MA.8.AR.4: : Develop an understanding of two-variable systems of equations.

MA.8.AR.4.1: : Given a system of two linear equations and a specified set of possible solutions, determine which ordered pairs satisfy the system of linear equations.

Solving Linear Systems (Standard Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, written in standard form. Explore what it means to solve systems algebraically (with substitution or elimination) and graphically. Also, use a draggable green point to see what it means when (*x*, *y*) values are solutions of an equation, or of a system of equations.
5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.4.2: : Given a system of two linear equations represented graphically on the same coordinate plane, determine whether there is one solution, no solution or infinitely many solutions.

Solving Linear Systems (Slope-Intercept Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, given in slope-intercept form, both graphically and algebraically. Use a draggable green point to examine what it means for an *x*, *y*)

Solving Linear Systems (Standard Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, written in standard form. Explore what it means to solve systems algebraically (with substitution or elimination) and graphically. Also, use a draggable green point to see what it means when (*x*, *y*) values are solutions of an equation, or of a system of equations.
5 Minute Preview

MA.8.AR.4.3: : Given a mathematical or real-world context, solve systems of two linear equations by graphing.

Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)

Experiment with a system of two lines representing a cat-and-mouse chase. Adjust the speeds of the cat and mouse and the head start of the mouse, and immediately see the effects on the graph and on the chase. Connect real-world meaning to slope, y-intercept, and the intersection of lines. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Linear Systems (Slope-Intercept Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, given in slope-intercept form, both graphically and algebraically. Use a draggable green point to examine what it means for an *x*, *y*)

Solving Linear Systems (Standard Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, written in standard form. Explore what it means to solve systems algebraically (with substitution or elimination) and graphically. Also, use a draggable green point to see what it means when (*x*, *y*) values are solutions of an equation, or of a system of equations.
5 Minute Preview

### MA.8.F: : Functions

MA.8.F.1: : Define, evaluate and compare functions.

MA.8.F.1.1: : Given a set of ordered pairs, a table, a graph or mapping diagram, determine whether the relationship is a function. Identify the domain and range of the relation.

Introduction to Functions

Determine if a relation is a function using the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or the graph of the relation. Drag arrows from the domain to the range, type in ordered pairs, or drag points to the graph to add inputs and outputs to the relation. 5 Minute Preview

Linear Functions

Determine if a relation is a function from the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or graph. Use the graph to determine if it is linear. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.F.1.2: : Given a function defined by a graph or an equation, determine whether the function is a linear function. Given an input-output table, determine whether it could represent a linear function.

Introduction to Functions

Determine if a relation is a function using the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or the graph of the relation. Drag arrows from the domain to the range, type in ordered pairs, or drag points to the graph to add inputs and outputs to the relation. 5 Minute Preview

Linear Functions

Determine if a relation is a function from the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or graph. Use the graph to determine if it is linear. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.F.1.3: : Analyze a real-world written description or graphical representation of a functional relationship between two quantities and identify where the function is increasing, decreasing or constant.

Distance-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Graphs of Polynomial Functions

Study the graphs of polynomials up to the fourth degree. Vary the coefficients of the equation and investigate how the graph changes in response. Explore things like intercepts, end behavior, and even near-zero behavior. 5 Minute Preview

Linear Functions

Determine if a relation is a function from the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or graph. Use the graph to determine if it is linear. 5 Minute Preview

### MA.8.GR: : Geometric Reasoning

MA.8.GR.1: : Develop an understanding of the Pythagorean Theorem and angle relationships involving triangles.

MA.8.GR.1.1: : Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to solve mathematical and real-world problems involving unknown side lengths in right triangles.

Pythagorean Theorem

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem using a dynamic right triangle. Examine a visual, geometric application of the Pythagorean Theorem, using the areas of squares on the sides of the triangle. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

Build right triangles in an interactive geoboard and build squares on the sides of the triangles to discover the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.GR.1.2: : Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to solve mathematical and real-world problems involving the distance between two points in a coordinate plane.

Distance Formula

Explore the distance formula as an application of the Pythagorean theorem. Learn to see any two points as the endpoints of the hypotenuse of a right triangle. Drag those points and examine changes to the triangle and the distance calculation. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.GR.1.3: : Use the Triangle Inequality Theorem to determine if a triangle can be formed from a given set of sides. Use the converse of the Pythagorean Theorem to determine if a right triangle can be formed from a given set of sides.

Pythagorean Theorem

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem using a dynamic right triangle. Examine a visual, geometric application of the Pythagorean Theorem, using the areas of squares on the sides of the triangle. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

Build right triangles in an interactive geoboard and build squares on the sides of the triangles to discover the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 Minute Preview

Triangle Inequalities

Discover the inequalities related to the side lengths and angle measures of a triangle. Reshape and resize the triangle to confirm that these properties are true for all triangles. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.GR.1.4: : Solve mathematical problems involving the relationships between supplementary, complementary, vertical or adjacent angles.

Investigating Angle Theorems

Explore the properties of complementary, supplementary, vertical, and adjacent angles using a dynamic figure. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.GR.1.5: : Solve problems involving the relationships of interior and exterior angles of a triangle.

Triangle Angle Sum

Measure the interior angles of a triangle and find the sum. Examine whether that sum is the same for all triangles. Also, discover how the measure of an exterior angle relates to the interior angle measures. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.GR.1.6: : Develop and use formulas for the sums of the interior angles of regular polygons by decomposing them into triangles.

Polygon Angle Sum

Derive the sum of the angles of a polygon by dividing the polygon into triangles and summing their angles. Vary the number of sides and determine how the sum of the angles changes. Dilate the polygon to see that the sum is unchanged. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.GR.2: : Understand similarity and congruence using models and transformations.

MA.8.GR.2.1: : Given a preimage and image generated by a single transformation, identify the transformation that describes the relationship.

Rock Art (Transformations)

Create your own rock art with ancient symbols. Each symbol can be translated, rotated, and reflected. After exploring each type of transformation, see if you can use them to match ancient rock paintings. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.GR.2.2: : Given a preimage and image generated by a single dilation, identify the scale factor that describes the relationship.

Similar Figures

Vary the scale factor and rotation of an image and compare it to the preimage. Determine how the angle measures and side lengths of the two figures are related. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.GR.2.3: : Describe and apply the effect of a single transformation on two-dimensional figures using coordinates and the coordinate plane.

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Rotations, Reflections, and Translations

Rotate, reflect, and translate a figure in the plane. Compare the translated figure to the original figure. 5 Minute Preview

Translations

Translate a figure horizontally and vertically in the plane and examine the matrix representation of the translation. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.GR.2.4: : Solve mathematical and real-world problems involving proportional relationships between similar triangles.

Similar Figures

Vary the scale factor and rotation of an image and compare it to the preimage. Determine how the angle measures and side lengths of the two figures are related. 5 Minute Preview

Similarity in Right Triangles

Divide a right triangle at the altitude to the hypotenuse to get two similar right triangles. Explore the relationship between the two triangles. 5 Minute Preview

### MA.8.DP: : Data Analysis and Probability

MA.8.DP.1: : Represent and investigate numerical bivariate data.

MA.8.DP.1.1: : Given a set of real-world bivariate numerical data, construct a scatter plot or a line graph as appropriate for the context.

Correlation

Explore the relationship between the correlation coefficient of a data set and its graph. Fit a line to the data and compare the least-squares fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Trends in Scatter Plots

Examine the scatter plot for a random data set with negative or positive correlation. Vary the correlation and explore how correlation is reflected in the scatter plot and the trend line. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.DP.1.2: : Given a scatter plot within a real-world context, describe patterns of association.

Correlation

Explore the relationship between the correlation coefficient of a data set and its graph. Fit a line to the data and compare the least-squares fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Using Trend Lines

Examine the scatter plots for data related to weather at different latitudes. The Gizmo includes three different data sets, one with negative correlation, one positive, and one with no correlation. Compare the least squares best-fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Trends in Scatter Plots

Examine the scatter plot for a random data set with negative or positive correlation. Vary the correlation and explore how correlation is reflected in the scatter plot and the trend line. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.DP.1.3: : Given a scatter plot with a linear association, informally fit a straight line.

Correlation

Explore the relationship between the correlation coefficient of a data set and its graph. Fit a line to the data and compare the least-squares fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Using Trend Lines

Examine the scatter plots for data related to weather at different latitudes. The Gizmo includes three different data sets, one with negative correlation, one positive, and one with no correlation. Compare the least squares best-fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Trends in Scatter Plots

Examine the scatter plot for a random data set with negative or positive correlation. Vary the correlation and explore how correlation is reflected in the scatter plot and the trend line. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.DP.2: : Represent and find probabilities of repeated experiments.

MA.8.DP.2.1: : Determine the sample space for a repeated experiment.

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

Probability Simulations

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of particular outcomes to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of a particular outcome to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.DP.2.2: : Find the theoretical probability of an event related to a repeated experiment.

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

Probability Simulations

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of particular outcomes to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of a particular outcome to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

MA.8.DP.2.3: : Solve real-world problems involving probabilities related to single or repeated experiments, including making predictions based on theoretical probability.

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

Probability Simulations

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of particular outcomes to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of a particular outcome to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

About STEM Cases

Students assume the role of a scientist trying to solve a real world problem. They use scientific practices to collect and analyze data, and form and test a hypothesis as they solve the problems.

Each STEM Case uses realtime reporting to show live student results.

Introduction to the Heatmap

STEM Cases take between 30-90 minutes for students to complete, depending on the case.

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Multiple grade-appropriate versions, or levels, exist for each STEM Case.

Each STEM Case level has an associated Handbook. These are interactive guides that focus on the science concepts underlying the case.

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