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- Mathematics: Precalculus

# Alabama - Mathematics: Precalculus

## Course of Study | Adopted: 2016

### N: : Number and Quantity

N-CN: : The Complex Number System

1.1.1: : Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane.

N-CN.1: : Students will: Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

N-CN.2: : Students will: Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

N-CN.3: : Students will: Calculate the distance between numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of the difference, and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

N-VM: : Vector and Matrix Quantities

1.5.1: : Represent and model with vector quantities.

N-VM.5: : Students will: Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, |v|, ||v||, v).

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

N-VM.6: : Students will: Find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point.

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

N-VM.7: : Students will: Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors.

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

1.5.2: : Perform operations on vectors.

N-VM.8: : Students will: Add and subtract vectors.

N-VM.8.a: : Add vectors end-to-end, component-wise, and by the parallelogram rule. Understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes.

Adding Vectors

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

N-VM.8.b: : Given two vectors in magnitude and direction form, determine the magnitude and direction of their sum.

Adding Vectors

Vectors

N-VM.8.c: : Understand vector subtraction v – w as v + (–w), where –w is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction component-wise.

Adding Vectors

Vectors

N-VM.9: : Students will: Multiply a vector by a scalar.

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

N-VM.9.a: : Represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; perform scalar multiplication component-wise, e.g., as ??(???, ?? subscript ??) = (?????, ???? subscript ??).

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Vectors

N-VM.9.b: : Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple ???? using ||????|| = |??|??. Compute the direction of ???? knowing that when |??|?? ? 0, the direction of ???? is either along ?? (for ?? > 0) or against ?? (for ??

Vectors

1.5.3: : Perform operations on matrices and use matrices in applications.

N-VM.11: : Students will: Work with 2 × 2 matrices as transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area.

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Translations

Translate a figure horizontally and vertically in the plane and examine the matrix representation of the translation. 5 Minute Preview

### A: : Algebra

A-APR: : Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions

2.2.1: : Use polynomial identities to solve problems.

A-APR.13: : Students will: Know and apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (x + y)^n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined, for example, by Pascal’s Triangle.

Binomial Probabilities

Find the probability of a number of successes or failures in a binomial experiment using a tree diagram, a bar graph, and direct calculation. 5 Minute Preview

A-REI: : Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities

2.3.1: : Solve systems of equations.

A-REI.14: : Students will: Represent a system of linear equations as a single matrix equation in a vector variable.

Solving Linear Systems (Matrices and Special Solutions)

Explore systems of linear equations, and how many solutions a system can have. Express systems in matrix form. See how the determinant of the coefficient matrix reveals how many solutions a system of equations has. Also, use a draggable green point to see what it means for an (*x*, *y*) point to be a solution of an equation, or of a system of equations.
5 Minute Preview

A-CS: : Conic Sections

2.4.1: : Understand the graphs and equations of conic sections.

A-CS.15: : Students will: Create graphs of conic sections, including parabolas, hyperbolas, ellipses, circles, and degenerate conics, from second-degree equations.

A-CS.15.a: : Formulate equations of conic sections from their determining characteristics.

Addition and Subtraction of Functions

Explore the graphs of two polynomials and the graph of their sum or difference. Vary the coefficients in the polynomials and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Circles

Compare the graph of a circle with its equation. Vary the terms in the equation and explore how the circle is translated and scaled in response. 5 Minute Preview

Ellipses

Compare the equation of an ellipse to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the ellipse and examine how the graph changes in response. Drag the vertices and foci, explore their Pythagorean relationship, and discover the string property. 5 Minute Preview

Hyperbolas

Compare the equation of a hyperbola to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the hyperbola. Examine how the graph of the hyperbola and its asymptotes changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Parabolas

Explore parabolas in a conic section context. Find the relationship among the vertex, focus, and directrix of a parabola, and how that relates to its equation. 5 Minute Preview

### F: : Functions

F-IF: : Interpreting Functions

3.1.1: : Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context.

F-IF.16: : Students will: For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship.

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of an exponential function. Vary the coefficient and base of the function and investigate the changes to the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

Function Machines 3 (Functions and Problem Solving)

Drop a number into a function machine, and see what number comes out! You can use one of the six pre-set function machines, or program your own function rule into one of the blank machines. Stack up to three function machines together. Input and output can be recorded in a table and on a graph. 5 Minute Preview

General Form of a Rational Function

Compare the equation of a rational function to its graph. Multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by linear factors and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Graphs of Polynomial Functions

Study the graphs of polynomials up to the fourth degree. Vary the coefficients of the equation and investigate how the graph changes in response. Explore things like intercepts, end behavior, and even near-zero behavior. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of the exponential function. Vary the initial amount and base of the function. Investigate the changes to the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions: Translating and Scaling

Vary the values in the equation of a logarithmic function and examine how the graph is translated or scaled. Connect these transformations with the domain of the function, and the asymptote in the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Points, Lines, and Equations

Compare the graph of a linear function to its rule and to a table of its values. Change the function by dragging two points on the line. Examine how the rule and table change. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Factored Form

Investigate the factors of a quadratic through its graph and through its equation. Vary the roots of the quadratic and examine how the graph and the equation change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Polynomial Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in polynomial form. Vary the coefficients of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Vertex Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in vertex form. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Radical Functions

Compare the graph of a radical function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation. Explore how the graph is translated and stretched by the changes to the equation. 5 Minute Preview

Rational Functions

Compare the graph of a rational function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph is translated and stretched as a result. Examine the domain on a number line and compare it to the graph of the equation. 5 Minute Preview

Standard Form of a Line

Compare the standard form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

F-IF.17: : Students will: Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.

Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)

Experiment with a system of two lines representing a cat-and-mouse chase. Adjust the speeds of the cat and mouse and the head start of the mouse, and immediately see the effects on the graph and on the chase. Connect real-world meaning to slope, y-intercept, and the intersection of lines. 5 Minute Preview

Graphs of Derivative Functions

What does the graph of a derivative function look like? What can a derivative function tell you about the original function? What can't it tell you? Explore these questions for five different types of functions: linear, quadratic, cubic, absolute value, and sine. 5 Minute Preview

Slope

Explore the slope of a line, and learn how to calculate slope. Adjust the line by moving points that are on the line, and see how its slope changes. 5 Minute Preview

3.1.2: : Analyze functions using different representations.

F-IF.18: : Students will: Graph functions expressed symbolically, and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.

F-IF.18.a: : Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions.

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

Solve an inequality involving absolute values using a graph of the absolute-value function. Vary the terms of the absolute-value function and vary the value that you are comparing it to. Then explore how the graph and solution set change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Radical Functions

Compare the graph of a radical function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation. Explore how the graph is translated and stretched by the changes to the equation. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Functions

Vary the coefficients in the equation of a function and examine how the graph of the function is translated or scaled. Select different functions to translate and scale, and determine what they have in common. 5 Minute Preview

F-IF.18.b: : Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.

Graphs of Polynomial Functions

Study the graphs of polynomials up to the fourth degree. Vary the coefficients of the equation and investigate how the graph changes in response. Explore things like intercepts, end behavior, and even near-zero behavior. 5 Minute Preview

Polynomials and Linear Factors

Create a polynomial as a product of linear factors. Vary the values in the linear factors to see how their connection to the roots of the function. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Factored Form

Investigate the factors of a quadratic through its graph and through its equation. Vary the roots of the quadratic and examine how the graph and the equation change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Vertex Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in vertex form. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Roots of a Quadratic

Find the root of a quadratic using its graph or the quadratic formula. Explore the graph of the roots and the point of symmetry in the complex plane. Compare the axis of symmetry and graph of the quadratic in the real plane. 5 Minute Preview

Zap It! Game

Adjust the values in a quadratic function, in vertex form or in polynomial form, to "zap" as many data points as possible. 5 Minute Preview

F-IF.18.c: : Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.

General Form of a Rational Function

Compare the equation of a rational function to its graph. Multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by linear factors and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Rational Functions

Compare the graph of a rational function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph is translated and stretched as a result. Examine the domain on a number line and compare it to the graph of the equation. 5 Minute Preview

F-IF.18.d: : Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of an exponential function. Vary the coefficient and base of the function and investigate the changes to the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

Exponential Growth and Decay

Explore the graph of the exponential growth or decay function. Vary the initial amount and the rate of growth or decay and investigate the changes to the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of the exponential function. Vary the initial amount and base of the function. Investigate the changes to the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions: Translating and Scaling

Vary the values in the equation of a logarithmic function and examine how the graph is translated or scaled. Connect these transformations with the domain of the function, and the asymptote in the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Functions

Vary the coefficients in the equation of a function and examine how the graph of the function is translated or scaled. Select different functions to translate and scale, and determine what they have in common. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

F-BF: : Building Functions

3.2.1: : Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.

F-BF.19: : Students will: Compose functions.

Function Machines 1 (Functions and Tables)

Drop a number into a function machine, and see what number comes out! You can use one of the six pre-set function machines, or program your own function rule into one of the blank machines. Stack up to three function machines together. Input and output can be recorded in a table and on a graph. 5 Minute Preview

3.2.2: : Build new functions from existing functions.

F-BF.20: : Students will: Determine the inverse of a function and a relation.

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

F-BF.21: : Students will: Verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another.

Logarithmic Functions

*y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

F-BF.22: : Students will: Read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse.

Function Machines 3 (Functions and Problem Solving)

Drop a number into a function machine, and see what number comes out! You can use one of the six pre-set function machines, or program your own function rule into one of the blank machines. Stack up to three function machines together. Input and output can be recorded in a table and on a graph. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

*y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

F-BF.23: : Students will: Produce an invertible function from a non-invertible function by restricting the domain.

Logarithmic Functions

*y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

F-BF.24: : Students will: Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms, and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents.

Logarithmic Functions

*y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

F-BF.25: : Students will: Compare effects of parameter changes on graphs of transcendental functions.

Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of an exponential function. Vary the coefficient and base of the function and investigate the changes to the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

Exponential Growth and Decay

Explore the graph of the exponential growth or decay function. Vary the initial amount and the rate of growth or decay and investigate the changes to the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of the exponential function. Vary the initial amount and base of the function. Investigate the changes to the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

*y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions: Translating and Scaling

Vary the values in the equation of a logarithmic function and examine how the graph is translated or scaled. Connect these transformations with the domain of the function, and the asymptote in the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Functions

Vary the coefficients in the equation of a function and examine how the graph of the function is translated or scaled. Select different functions to translate and scale, and determine what they have in common. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

F-TF: : Trigonometric Functions

3.3.1: : Recognize attributes of trigonometric functions and solve problems involving trigonometry.

F-TF.26: : Students will: Determine the amplitude, period, phase shift, domain, and range of trigonometric functions and their inverses.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Functions

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

F-TF.27: : Students will: Use the sum, difference, and half-angle identities to find the exact value of a trigonometric function.

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

Choose the correct steps to evaluate a trigonometric expression using sum and difference identities. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

F-TF.28: : Students will: Utilize parametric equations by graphing and by converting to rectangular form.

F-TF.28.b: : Solve applied problems that include sequences with recurrence relations.

Arithmetic Sequences

Find the value of individual terms in arithmetic sequences using graphs of the sequences and direct computation. Vary the common difference and examine how the sequences change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Geometric Sequences

Explore geometric sequences by varying the initial term and the common ratio and examining the graph. Compute specific terms in the sequence using the explicit and recursive formulas. 5 Minute Preview

3.3.2: : Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle.

F-TF.29: : Students will: Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for pi/3, pi/4, and pi/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for pi – x, pi + x, and 2pi – x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios

Reshape and resize a right triangle and examine how the sine of angle A, the cosine of angle A, and the tangent of angle A change. 5 Minute Preview

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

Choose the correct steps to evaluate a trigonometric expression using sum and difference identities. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

F-TF.30: : Students will: Use the unit circle to explain symmetry (odd and even) and periodicity of trigonometric functions.

Cosine Function

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

3.3.4: : Prove and apply trigonometric identities.

F-TF.33: : Students will: Prove the Pythagorean identity sin²(theta) + cos²(theta) = 1, and use it to find sin(theta), cos(theta), or tan(theta) given sin(theta), cos(theta), or tan(theta) and the quadrant of the angle.

Cosine Function

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

Choose the correct steps to simplify a trigonometric function. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios

Reshape and resize a right triangle and examine how the sine of angle A, the cosine of angle A, and the tangent of angle A change. 5 Minute Preview

F-TF.34: : Students will: Prove the addition and subtraction formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent, and use them to solve problems.

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

Choose the correct steps to simplify a trigonometric function. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

Choose the correct steps to evaluate a trigonometric expression using sum and difference identities. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

### G: : Geometry

G-GPE: : Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations

4.2.1: : Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section.

G-GPE.36: : Students will: Derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and directrix.

Parabolas

Explore parabolas in a conic section context. Find the relationship among the vertex, focus, and directrix of a parabola, and how that relates to its equation. 5 Minute Preview

G-GPE.37: : Students will: Derive the equations of ellipses and hyperbolas given the foci, using the fact that the sum or difference of distances from the foci is constant.

Ellipses

Compare the equation of an ellipse to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the ellipse and examine how the graph changes in response. Drag the vertices and foci, explore their Pythagorean relationship, and discover the string property. 5 Minute Preview

Hyperbolas

Compare the equation of a hyperbola to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the hyperbola. Examine how the graph of the hyperbola and its asymptotes changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

4.2.2: : Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems.

G-GPE.38: : Students will: Give an informal argument using Cavalieri’s principle for the formulas for the volume of a sphere and other solid figures.

Prisms and Cylinders

Vary the height and base-edge or radius length of a prism or cylinder and examine how its three-dimensional representation changes. Determine the area of the base and the volume of the solid. Compare the volume of an oblique prism or cylinder to the volume of a right prism or cylinder. 5 Minute Preview

Pyramids and Cones

Vary the height and base-edge or radius length of a pyramid or cone and examine how its three-dimensional representation changes. Determine the area of the base and the volume of the solid. Compare the volume of a skew pyramid or cone to the volume of a right pyramid or cone. 5 Minute Preview

### S: : Statistics and Probability

S-ID: : Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data

5.1.1: : Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable.

S-ID.39: : Students will: Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets.

Box-and-Whisker Plots

Construct a box-and-whisker plot to match a line plots, and construct a line plot to match a box-and-whisker plots. Manipulate the line plot and examine how the box-and-whisker plot changes. Then manipulate the box-and-whisker plot and examine how the line plot changes. 5 Minute Preview

Describing Data Using Statistics

Investigate the mean, median, mode, and range of a data set through its graph. Manipulate the data and watch how the mean, median, mode, and range change (or, in some cases, how they don't change). 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions: Translating and Scaling

Mean, Median, and Mode

Build a data set and find the mean, median, and mode. Explore the mean, median, and mode illustrated as frogs on a seesaw, frogs on a scale, and as frogs stacked under a bar of variable height. 5 Minute Preview

Polling: City

Poll residents in a large city to determine their response to a yes-or-no question. Estimate the actual percentage of yes votes in the whole city. Examine the results of many polls to help assess how reliable the results from a single poll are. See how the normal curve approximates a binomial distribution for large enough polls. 5 Minute Preview

Populations and Samples

Compare sample distributions drawn from population distributions. Predict characteristics of a population distribution based on a sample distribution and examine how well a small sample represents a given population. 5 Minute Preview

Reaction Time 1 (Graphs and Statistics)

Test your reaction time by catching a falling ruler or clicking a target. Create a data set of experiment results, and calculate the range, mode, median, and mean of your data. Data can be displayed on a list, table, bar graph or dot plot. The Reaction Time 1 Student Exploration focuses on range, mode, and median. 5 Minute Preview

Real-Time Histogram

Try to click your mouse once every 2 seconds. The time interval between each click is recorded, as well as the error and percent error. Data can be displayed in a table, histogram, or scatter plot. Observe and measure the characteristics of the resulting distribution when large amounts of data are collected. 5 Minute Preview

Sight vs. Sound Reactions

Measure your reaction time by clicking your mouse as quickly as possible when visual or auditory stimuli are presented. The individual response times are recorded, as well as the mean and standard deviation for each test. A histogram of data shows overall trends in sight and sound response times. The type of test as well as the symbols and sounds used are chosen by the user. 5 Minute Preview

S-ID.40: : Students will: Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).

Box-and-Whisker Plots

Construct a box-and-whisker plot to match a line plots, and construct a line plot to match a box-and-whisker plots. Manipulate the line plot and examine how the box-and-whisker plot changes. Then manipulate the box-and-whisker plot and examine how the line plot changes. 5 Minute Preview

Describing Data Using Statistics

Investigate the mean, median, mode, and range of a data set through its graph. Manipulate the data and watch how the mean, median, mode, and range change (or, in some cases, how they don't change). 5 Minute Preview

Least-Squares Best Fit Lines

Fit a line to the data in a scatter plot using your own judgment. Then compare the least squares line of best fit. 5 Minute Preview

Mean, Median, and Mode

Build a data set and find the mean, median, and mode. Explore the mean, median, and mode illustrated as frogs on a seesaw, frogs on a scale, and as frogs stacked under a bar of variable height. 5 Minute Preview

Populations and Samples

Compare sample distributions drawn from population distributions. Predict characteristics of a population distribution based on a sample distribution and examine how well a small sample represents a given population. 5 Minute Preview

Reaction Time 1 (Graphs and Statistics)

Test your reaction time by catching a falling ruler or clicking a target. Create a data set of experiment results, and calculate the range, mode, median, and mean of your data. Data can be displayed on a list, table, bar graph or dot plot. The Reaction Time 1 Student Exploration focuses on range, mode, and median. 5 Minute Preview

Reaction Time 2 (Graphs and Statistics)

Test your reaction time by catching a falling ruler or clicking a target. Create a data set of experiment results, and calculate the range, mode, median, and mean of your data. Data can be displayed on a list, table, bar graph or dot plot. The Reaction Time 2 Student Exploration focuses on mean. 5 Minute Preview

Real-Time Histogram

Try to click your mouse once every 2 seconds. The time interval between each click is recorded, as well as the error and percent error. Data can be displayed in a table, histogram, or scatter plot. Observe and measure the characteristics of the resulting distribution when large amounts of data are collected. 5 Minute Preview

Stem-and-Leaf Plots

Build a data set and compare the line plot of the data set to the stem-and-leaf plot. 5 Minute Preview

S-ID.41: : Students will: Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.

Polling: City

Poll residents in a large city to determine their response to a yes-or-no question. Estimate the actual percentage of yes votes in the whole city. Examine the results of many polls to help assess how reliable the results from a single poll are. See how the normal curve approximates a binomial distribution for large enough polls. 5 Minute Preview

Populations and Samples

Compare sample distributions drawn from population distributions. Predict characteristics of a population distribution based on a sample distribution and examine how well a small sample represents a given population. 5 Minute Preview

Real-Time Histogram

Try to click your mouse once every 2 seconds. The time interval between each click is recorded, as well as the error and percent error. Data can be displayed in a table, histogram, or scatter plot. Observe and measure the characteristics of the resulting distribution when large amounts of data are collected. 5 Minute Preview

Sight vs. Sound Reactions

Measure your reaction time by clicking your mouse as quickly as possible when visual or auditory stimuli are presented. The individual response times are recorded, as well as the mean and standard deviation for each test. A histogram of data shows overall trends in sight and sound response times. The type of test as well as the symbols and sounds used are chosen by the user. 5 Minute Preview

5.1.2: : Interpret linear models.

S-ID.42: : Students will: Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit.

Correlation

Explore the relationship between the correlation coefficient of a data set and its graph. Fit a line to the data and compare the least-squares fit line. 5 Minute Preview

S-ID.43: : Students will: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Correlation

Explore the relationship between the correlation coefficient of a data set and its graph. Fit a line to the data and compare the least-squares fit line. 5 Minute Preview

S-IC: : Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions

5.2.1: : Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments.

S-IC.44: : Students will: Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population.

Polling: City

Poll residents in a large city to determine their response to a yes-or-no question. Estimate the actual percentage of yes votes in the whole city. Examine the results of many polls to help assess how reliable the results from a single poll are. See how the normal curve approximates a binomial distribution for large enough polls. 5 Minute Preview

Polling: Neighborhood

Conduct a phone poll of citizens in a small neighborhood to determine their response to a yes-or-no question. Use the results to estimate the sentiment of the entire population. Investigate how the error of this estimate becomes smaller as more people are polled. Compare random versus non-random sampling. 5 Minute Preview

Populations and Samples

S-IC.45: : Students will: Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given data-generating process, e.g., using simulation.

Polling: City

Polling: Neighborhood

Conduct a phone poll of citizens in a small neighborhood to determine their response to a yes-or-no question. Use the results to estimate the sentiment of the entire population. Investigate how the error of this estimate becomes smaller as more people are polled. Compare random versus non-random sampling. 5 Minute Preview

Populations and Samples

Probability Simulations

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of particular outcomes to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of a particular outcome to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

5.2.2: : Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies.

S-IC.46: : Students will: Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.

Polling: City

Polling: Neighborhood

Conduct a phone poll of citizens in a small neighborhood to determine their response to a yes-or-no question. Use the results to estimate the sentiment of the entire population. Investigate how the error of this estimate becomes smaller as more people are polled. Compare random versus non-random sampling. 5 Minute Preview

Sight vs. Sound Reactions

Measure your reaction time by clicking your mouse as quickly as possible when visual or auditory stimuli are presented. The individual response times are recorded, as well as the mean and standard deviation for each test. A histogram of data shows overall trends in sight and sound response times. The type of test as well as the symbols and sounds used are chosen by the user. 5 Minute Preview

Time Estimation

Try to estimate the passage of time by selecting a time interval, clicking the Start button, and clicking Stop when you think the interval has passed. The estimate and percent error are recorded. Compare different techniques for estimating time, as well as the average error for long time intervals versus shorter intervals. 5 Minute Preview

S-IC.47: : Students will: Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling.

Polling: City

Polling: Neighborhood

Populations and Samples

S-IC.48: : Students will: Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant.

Polling: City

Polling: Neighborhood

Populations and Samples

S-IC.49: : Students will: Evaluate reports based on data.

Describing Data Using Statistics

Investigate the mean, median, mode, and range of a data set through its graph. Manipulate the data and watch how the mean, median, mode, and range change (or, in some cases, how they don't change). 5 Minute Preview

Polling: City

Polling: Neighborhood

Real-Time Histogram

S-MD: : Using Probability to Make Decisions

5.3.1: : Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems.

S-MD.50: : Students will: Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions.

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

Pick a duck, win a prize! Help Arnie the carnie design his game so that he makes money (or at least breaks even). How many ducks of each type should there be? What are the prizes worth? How much should he charge to play? Lucky Duck is a fun way to learn about probabilities and expected value. 5 Minute Preview

Polling: City

S-MD.51: : Students will: Calculate the expected value of a random variable; interpret it as the mean of the probability distribution.

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

Pick a duck, win a prize! Help Arnie the carnie design his game so that he makes money (or at least breaks even). How many ducks of each type should there be? What are the prizes worth? How much should he charge to play? Lucky Duck is a fun way to learn about probabilities and expected value. 5 Minute Preview

Polling: City

S-MD.52: : Students will: Develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which theoretical probabilities can be calculated; find the expected value.

Binomial Probabilities

Find the probability of a number of successes or failures in a binomial experiment using a tree diagram, a bar graph, and direct calculation. 5 Minute Preview

Geometric Probability

Randomly throw darts at a target and see what percent are "hits." Vary the size of the target and repeat the experiment. Study the relationship between the area of the target and the percent of darts that strike it 5 Minute Preview

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

Pick a duck, win a prize! Help Arnie the carnie design his game so that he makes money (or at least breaks even). How many ducks of each type should there be? What are the prizes worth? How much should he charge to play? Lucky Duck is a fun way to learn about probabilities and expected value. 5 Minute Preview

Probability Simulations

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of particular outcomes to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of a particular outcome to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

S-MD.53: : Students will: Develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which probabilities are assigned empirically; find the expected value.

Geometric Probability

Randomly throw darts at a target and see what percent are "hits." Vary the size of the target and repeat the experiment. Study the relationship between the area of the target and the percent of darts that strike it 5 Minute Preview

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

Probability Simulations

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of particular outcomes to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of a particular outcome to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

5.3.2: : Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions.

S-MD.54: : Students will: Weigh the possible outcomes of a decision by assigning probabilities to payoff values and finding expected values.

S-MD.54.a: : Find the expected payoff for a game of chance.

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

S-MD.54.b: : Evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values.

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

About STEM Cases

Students assume the role of a scientist trying to solve a real world problem. They use scientific practices to collect and analyze data, and form and test a hypothesis as they solve the problems.

Each STEM Case uses realtime reporting to show live student results.

Introduction to the Heatmap

STEM Cases take between 30-90 minutes for students to complete, depending on the case.

Student progress is automatically saved so that STEM Cases can be completed over multiple sessions.

Multiple grade-appropriate versions, or levels, exist for each STEM Case.

Each STEM Case level has an associated Handbook. These are interactive guides that focus on the science concepts underlying the case.

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**Free Gizmos change each semester.** The new collection will be available January 1 and July 1.

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