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# Tennessee - Science: Physics

## Academic Standards | Adopted: 2016

### PHYS.PS1: : Matter and Its Interactions

PHYS.PS1.1: : Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of an atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

Nuclear Decay

Observe the five main types of nuclear decay: alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, positron emission, and electron capture. Write nuclear equations by determining the mass numbers and atomic numbers of daughter products and emitted particles. 5 Minute Preview

Nuclear Reactions

Explore examples of nuclear fusion and fission reactions. Follow the steps of the proton-proton chain, CNO cycle, and fission of uranium-235. Write balanced nuclear equations for each step, and compare the energy produced in each process. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS1.3: : Investigate and evaluate the expression for calculating the percentage of a remaining atom (N(t) = N0e - (lambda)t) using simulated models, calculations, and/or graphical representations. Define the half-life (t1/2) and decay constant lambda. Perform an investigation on probability and calculate half-life from acquired data (does not require use of actual radioactive samples).

Half-life

Investigate the decay of a radioactive substance. The half-life and the number of radioactive atoms can be adjusted, and theoretical or random decay can be observed. Data can be interpreted visually using a dynamic graph, a bar chart, and a table. Determine the half-lives of two sample isotopes as well as samples with randomly generated half-lives. 5 Minute Preview

Isotopes

Explore what isotopes are by adding protons and neutrons to the nucleus of an atom. Plot both stable and radioactive isotopes on a graph of neutrons vs. protons, and explore how the neutron:proton ratio of stable isotopes changes from lighter to heavier elements. 5 Minute Preview

### PHYS.PS2: : Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

PHYS.PS2.1: : Investigate and evaluate the graphical and mathematical relationship (using either manual graphing or computers) of one-dimensional kinematic parameters (distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration) with respect to an object's position, direction of motion, and time.

Distance-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.2: : Algebraically solve problems involving constant velocity and constant acceleration in one-dimension.

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.3: : Algebraically solve problems involving arc length, angular velocity, and angular acceleration. Relate quantities to tangential magnitudes of translational motion.

Gravity Pitch

Imagine a gigantic pitcher standing on Earth, ready to hurl a huge baseball. What will happen as the ball is thrown harder and harder? Find out with the Gravity Pitch Gizmo. Observe the path of the ball when it is thrown at different velocities. Throw the ball on different planets to see how each planet's gravity affects the ball. 5 Minute Preview

Moment of Inertia

Place masses on a circular table and see how fast it spins when struck by a piston. Discover the relationships between angular velocity, mass, radius and moment of inertia for collections of point-masses, rings, disks, and more complex shapes. 5 Minute Preview

Torque and Moment of Inertia

One of the simplest machines is a see-saw lever. Place up to eight objects on the lever at different locations and try to balance it. Calculate net torque and moment of inertia based on the positions of the objects and the mass of the bar. The mass of each object can be changed, and the fulcrum position can be shifted as well. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.4: : Use free-body diagrams to illustrate the contact and non-contact forces acting on an object. Use the diagrams in combination with graphical or component-based vector analysis and with Newton's first and second laws to predict the position of the object on which the forces act in a constant net force scenario.

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Determining a Spring Constant

Place a pan on the end of a hanging spring. Measure how much the spring stretches when various masses are added to the pan. Create a graph of displacement vs. mass to determine the spring constant of the spring. 5 Minute Preview

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

Observe and compare objects of different shapes as they roll or slide down an inclined plane. Compare the percentages of translational and rotational kinetic energy for each object, and see how this affects how quickly each object moves. The slope of each ramp can be adjusted, and a variety of materials can be used for the objects and ramps. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.5: : Gather evidence to defend the claim of Newton's first law of motion by explaining the effect that balanced forces have upon objects that are stationary or are moving at constant velocity.

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

Observe and compare objects of different shapes as they roll or slide down an inclined plane. Compare the percentages of translational and rotational kinetic energy for each object, and see how this affects how quickly each object moves. The slope of each ramp can be adjusted, and a variety of materials can be used for the objects and ramps. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

Pulley Lab

Use a pulley system to lift a heavy weight to a certain height. Measure the force required to lift the weight using up to three fixed and three movable pulleys. The weight to be lifted and the efficiency of the pulley system can be adjusted, and the height of the weight and the total input distance are reported. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.7: : Plan, conduct, and analyze the results of a controlled investigation to explore the validity of Newton's second law of motion in a system subject to a net unbalanced force, Fnet = ma or Fnet = delta p/delta t.

Atwood Machine

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.8: : Use examples of forces between pairs of objects involving gravitation, electrostatic, friction, and normal forces to explain Newton's third law.

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

Observe and compare objects of different shapes as they roll or slide down an inclined plane. Compare the percentages of translational and rotational kinetic energy for each object, and see how this affects how quickly each object moves. The slope of each ramp can be adjusted, and a variety of materials can be used for the objects and ramps. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.9: : Use Newton’s law of universal gravitation, F = G(m1m2/r²), to calculate the gravitational forces, mass, or distance separating two objects with mass, given the information about the other quantities.

Gravitational Force

Drag two objects around and observe the gravitational force between them as their positions change. The mass of each object can be adjusted, and the gravitational force is displayed both as vectors and numerically. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.10: : Describe and mathematically determine the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles using Coulomb’s law, F sub e = k sub e(q1q2/r²). Compare and contrast Coulomb’s law and gravitational force, notably with respect to distance.

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

PHYS.PS2.11: : Develop and apply the impulse-momentum theorem along with scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on an object during a collision (e.g., helmet, seatbelt, parachute).

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.12: : Use experimental evidence to demonstrate that air resistance is a velocity dependent drag force that leads to terminal velocity.

Free-Fall Laboratory

PHYS.PS2.13: : Develop a model to predict the range of a two-dimensional projectile based upon its starting height, initial velocity, and angle at which it was launched.

Feed the Monkey (Projectile Motion)

Fire a banana cannon at a monkey in a tree. The monkey drops from the tree at the moment the banana is fired from the cannon. Determine where to aim the cannon so the monkey catches the banana. The position of the cannon, launch angle and initial velocity of the banana can be varied. Students can observe the velocity vectors and the paths of the monkey and banana. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

Trebuchet

Design your own trebuchet to fling a projectile at a castle wall. All of the dimensions of the trebuchet can be adjusted, as well as the masses of the counterweight and payload. Select a target on the Launch tab, or just see how far your projectile will go. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS2.14: : Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that a constant force perpendicular to an object's motion is required for uniform circular motion (F = mv²/r).

Uniform Circular Motion

Measure the position, velocity, and acceleration (both components and magnitude) of an object undergoing circular motion. The radius and velocity of the object can be controlled, along with the mass of the object. The forces acting on the object also can be recorded. 5 Minute Preview

### PHYS.PS3: : Energy

PHYS.PS3.1: : Identify and calculate different types of energy and their transformations (thermal, kinetic, potential, including magnetic and electrical potential energies) from one form to another in a system.

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Energy Conversions

Where does energy come from? How does energy get from one place to another? Find out how electrical current is generated and how living things get energy to move and grow. Trace the path of energy and see how energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Heat Absorption

Shine a powerful flashlight on a variety of materials, and measure how quickly each material heats up. See how the light angle, light color, type of material, and material color affect heating. A glass cover can be added to simulate a greenhouse. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Reaction Energy

Exothermic chemical reactions release energy, while endothermic reactions absorb energy. But what causes some reactions to be exothermic, and others to be endothermic? In this simulation, compare the energy absorbed in breaking bonds to the energy released in forming bonds to determine if a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

Sled Wars

Explore acceleration, speed, momentum, and energy by sending a sled down a hill into a group of snowmen. The starting height and mass of the sled can be changed, as well as the number of snowmen. In the Two sleds scenario, observe collisions between sleds of different masses and starting heights. 5 Minute Preview

Trebuchet

Design your own trebuchet to fling a projectile at a castle wall. All of the dimensions of the trebuchet can be adjusted, as well as the masses of the counterweight and payload. Select a target on the Launch tab, or just see how far your projectile will go. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.2: : Investigate conduction, convection, and radiation as a mechanism for the transfer of thermal energy.

Calorimetry Lab

Investigate how calorimetry can be used to find relative specific heat values when different substances are mixed with water. Modify initial mass and temperature values to see effects on the system. One or any combination of the substances can be mixed with water. A dynamic graph (temperature vs. time) shows temperatures of the individual substances after mixing. 5 Minute Preview

Conduction and Convection

Two flasks hold colored water, one yellow and the other blue. Set the starting temperature of each flask, choose a type of material to connect the flasks, and see how quickly the flasks heat up or cool down. The flasks can be connected with a hollow pipe, allowing the water in the flasks to mix, or a solid chunk that transfers heat but prevents mixing. 5 Minute Preview

Convection Cells

Explore the causes of convection by heating liquid and observing the resulting motion. The location and intensity of the heat source (or sources) can be varied, as well as the viscosity of the liquid. Use a probe to measure temperature and density in different areas and observe the motion of molecules in the liquid. Then, explore real-world examples of convection cells in Earth's mantle, oceans, and atmosphere. 5 Minute Preview

Heat Transfer by Conduction

An insulated beaker of hot water is connected to a beaker of cold water with a conducting bar, and over time the temperatures of the beakers equalize as heat is transferred through the bar. Four materials (aluminum, copper, steel, and glass) are available for the bar. 5 Minute Preview

Herschel Experiment - Metric

Shine sunlight through a prism and use a thermometer to measure the temperature in different regions of the spectrum. The thermometer can be dragged through the visible spectrum and beyond. This recreates the experiment of William Herschel that led to the discovery of infrared radiation in 1800. 5 Minute Preview

Radiation

Use a powerful flashlight to pop a kernel of popcorn. A lens focuses light on the kernel. The temperature of the filament and the distance between the flashlight and lens can be changed. Several obstacles can be placed between the flashlight and the popcorn. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.3: : Use the principle of energy conservation and mathematical representations to quantify the change in energy of one component of a system when the energy that flows in and out of the system and the change in energy of the other components is known.

Calorimetry Lab

Investigate how calorimetry can be used to find relative specific heat values when different substances are mixed with water. Modify initial mass and temperature values to see effects on the system. One or any combination of the substances can be mixed with water. A dynamic graph (temperature vs. time) shows temperatures of the individual substances after mixing. 5 Minute Preview

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Reaction Energy

Exothermic chemical reactions release energy, while endothermic reactions absorb energy. But what causes some reactions to be exothermic, and others to be endothermic? In this simulation, compare the energy absorbed in breaking bonds to the energy released in forming bonds to determine if a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

Sled Wars

Explore acceleration, speed, momentum, and energy by sending a sled down a hill into a group of snowmen. The starting height and mass of the sled can be changed, as well as the number of snowmen. In the Two sleds scenario, observe collisions between sleds of different masses and starting heights. 5 Minute Preview

Trebuchet

Design your own trebuchet to fling a projectile at a castle wall. All of the dimensions of the trebuchet can be adjusted, as well as the masses of the counterweight and payload. Select a target on the Launch tab, or just see how far your projectile will go. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.4: : Assess the validity of the law of conservation of linear momentum (p=mv) by planning and constructing a controlled scientific investigation involving two objects moving in one-dimension.

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.5: : Construct an argument based on qualitative and quantitative evidence that relates the change in temperature of a substance to its mass and heat energy added or removed from a system.

Calorimetry Lab

Investigate how calorimetry can be used to find relative specific heat values when different substances are mixed with water. Modify initial mass and temperature values to see effects on the system. One or any combination of the substances can be mixed with water. A dynamic graph (temperature vs. time) shows temperatures of the individual substances after mixing. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.6: : Define power and solve problems involving the rate of energy production or consumption (P = delta E/delta t). Explain and predict changes in power consumption based on changes in energy demand or elapsed time. Investigate power consumption and power production systems in common use.

Household Energy Usage

Explore the energy used by many household appliances, such as television sets, hair dryers, lights, computers, etc. Make estimates for how long each item is used on a daily basis to get an estimate for the total power consumed during a day, a week, a month, and a year, and how that relates to consumer costs and environmental impact. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.8: : Communicate scientific ideas to describe how forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space. Explain how energy is contained within the field and how the energy changes when the objects generating and interacting with the field change their relative positions.

Electromagnetic Induction

Explore how a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current. A magnet can be moved up or down at a constant velocity below a loop of wire, or the loop of wire may be dragged in any direction or rotated. The magnetic and electric fields can be displayed, as well as the magnetic flux and the current in the wire. 5 Minute Preview

Magnetic Induction

Measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field at different locations in a laboratory. Compare the strength of the induced magnetic field to Earth's magnetic field. The direction and magnitude of the inducting current can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

Magnetism

Drag bar magnets and a variety of other objects onto a piece of paper. Click Play to release the objects to see if they are attracted together, repelled apart, or unaffected. You can also sprinkle iron filings over the magnets and other objects to view the magnetic field lines that are produced. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.9: : Describe, compare, and diagrammatically represent both electric and magnetic fields. Qualitatively predict the motion of a charged particle in each type of field, but avoid situations where the two types of fields are combined in the same region of space. Restrict magnetic fields to those that are parallel or perpendicular to the path of a charged particle.

Charge Launcher

Launch a charged particle into a chamber. Charged particles can be added into the chamber to influence the path of the moving particle. The launch speed can be changed as well. Try to match a given path by manipulating the fixed particles in the chamber. 5 Minute Preview

Electromagnetic Induction

Explore how a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current. A magnet can be moved up or down at a constant velocity below a loop of wire, or the loop of wire may be dragged in any direction or rotated. The magnetic and electric fields can be displayed, as well as the magnetic flux and the current in the wire. 5 Minute Preview

Magnetic Induction

Measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field at different locations in a laboratory. Compare the strength of the induced magnetic field to Earth's magnetic field. The direction and magnitude of the inducting current can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

Magnetism

Drag bar magnets and a variety of other objects onto a piece of paper. Click Play to release the objects to see if they are attracted together, repelled apart, or unaffected. You can also sprinkle iron filings over the magnets and other objects to view the magnetic field lines that are produced. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.10: : Develop a model (sketch, CAD drawing, etc.) of a resistor circuit or capacitor circuit and use it to illustrate the behavior of electrons, electrical charge, and energy transfer.

Circuit Builder

Create circuits using batteries, light bulbs, switches, fuses, and a variety of materials. Examine series and parallel circuits, conductors and insulators, and the effects of battery voltage. Thousands of different circuits can be built with this Gizmo. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.11: : Investigate Ohm’s law (I=V/R) by conducting an experiment to determine the relationships between current and voltage, current and resistance, and voltage and resistance.

Advanced Circuits

Build compound circuits with series and parallel elements. Calculate voltages, resistance, and current across each component using Ohm's law and the equivalent resistance equation. Check your answers using a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter. Learn the function of fuses as a safety device. 5 Minute Preview

Circuits

Build electrical circuits using batteries, light bulbs, resistors, fuses, wires, and a switch. An ammeter, a voltmeter and an ohmmeter are available for measuring current, voltage and resistance throughout the circuit. The voltage of the battery and the precision of the meters can be adjusted. Multiple circuits can be built for comparison. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.12: : Apply the law of conservation of energy and charge to assess the validity of Kirchhoff’s loop and junction rules when algebraically solving problems involving multi-loop circuits.

Advanced Circuits

Build compound circuits with series and parallel elements. Calculate voltages, resistance, and current across each component using Ohm's law and the equivalent resistance equation. Check your answers using a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter. Learn the function of fuses as a safety device. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS3.14: : Recognize and communicate information about energy efficiency and/or inefficiency of machines used in everyday life.

Household Energy Usage

Explore the energy used by many household appliances, such as television sets, hair dryers, lights, computers, etc. Make estimates for how long each item is used on a daily basis to get an estimate for the total power consumed during a day, a week, a month, and a year, and how that relates to consumer costs and environmental impact. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Pulley Lab

Use a pulley system to lift a heavy weight to a certain height. Measure the force required to lift the weight using up to three fixed and three movable pulleys. The weight to be lifted and the efficiency of the pulley system can be adjusted, and the height of the weight and the total input distance are reported. 5 Minute Preview

### PHYS.PS4: : Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

PHYS.PS4.1: : Know wave parameters (i.e., velocity, period, amplitude, frequency, angular frequency) as well as how these quantities are defined in the cases of longitudinal and transverse waves.

Longitudinal Waves

Observe the propagation of longitudinal (compression) waves in a closed or open tube with evenly-spaced dividers. The strength and frequency of the waves can be manipulated, or waves can be observed as individual pulses. Compare the movement of dividers to graphs of displacement, velocity, acceleration and pressure. 5 Minute Preview

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

Waves

Observe and measure transverse, longitudinal, and combined waves on a model of a spring moved by a hand. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of the hand, and the tension and density of the spring. The speed and power of the waves is reported, and the wavelength and amplitude can be measured. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS4.2: : Describe parameters of a medium that affect the propagation of a sound wave through it.

Waves

Observe and measure transverse, longitudinal, and combined waves on a model of a spring moved by a hand. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of the hand, and the tension and density of the spring. The speed and power of the waves is reported, and the wavelength and amplitude can be measured. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS4.3: : Understand that the reflection, refraction, and transmission of waves at an interface between two media can be modeled on the basis of characteristics of specific wave parameters and parameters of the medium.

Basic Prism

Shine white light or a single-color beam through a prism. Explore how a prism refracts light and investigate the factors that affect the amount of refraction. The index of refraction of the prism, width of the prism, prism angle, light angle, and light wavelength can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

Refraction

Determine the angle of refraction for a light beam moving from one medium to another. The angle of incidence and each index of refraction can be varied. Using the tools provided, the angle of refraction can be measured, and the wavelength and frequency of the waves in each substance can be compared as well. 5 Minute Preview

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS4.6: : Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to construct explanations of light's behavior (reflection, refraction, transmission, interference) including the use of ray diagrams.

Laser Reflection

Point a laser at a mirror and compare the angle of the incoming beam to the angle of reflection. A protractor can be used to measure the angles of incidence and reflection, and the angle of the mirror can be adjusted. A beam splitter can be used to split the beam. Both plane and irregular mirrors can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

Observe light rays that pass through a convex or concave lens. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the lens and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

Observe light rays that reflect from a convex or concave mirror. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the mirror and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Refraction

Determine the angle of refraction for a light beam moving from one medium to another. The angle of incidence and each index of refraction can be varied. Using the tools provided, the angle of refraction can be measured, and the wavelength and frequency of the waves in each substance can be compared as well. 5 Minute Preview

PHYS.PS4.7: : Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model.

Photoelectric Effect

Shoot a beam of light at a metal plate in a virtual lab and observe the effect on surface electrons. The type of metal as well as the wavelength and amount of light can be adjusted. An electric field can be created to resist the electrons and measure their initial energies. 5 Minute Preview

Correlation last revised: 8/17/2021

About STEM Cases

Students assume the role of a scientist trying to solve a real world problem. They use scientific practices to collect and analyze data, and form and test a hypothesis as they solve the problems.

Each STEM Case uses realtime reporting to show live student results.

Introduction to the Heatmap

STEM Cases take between 30-90 minutes for students to complete, depending on the case.

Student progress is automatically saved so that STEM Cases can be completed over multiple sessions.

Multiple grade-appropriate versions, or levels, exist for each STEM Case.

Each STEM Case level has an associated Handbook. These are interactive guides that focus on the science concepts underlying the case.

How Free Gizmos Work

Start teaching with
**20-40 Free Gizmos**. See the full list.

Access **lesson materials** for Free Gizmos including teacher guides, lesson plans, and more.

All other Gizmos are limited to a **5 Minute Preview** and can only be used for 5 minutes a day.

**Free Gizmos change each semester.** The new collection will be available January 1 and July 1.

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