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# West Virginia - Science: Physics

## College- and Career-Readiness Standards | Adopted: 2021

### PPS: : Physics/Physical Science

1.1: : Forces and Interactions

PPS.S.P.1: : Use systematic rules for measuring with certainty and accurately perform calculations using significant figure rules for addition/subtraction and multiplication/division to determine distance, speed/velocity, and acceleration of objects.

Distance-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.2: : Interpret graphical, algebraic, and/or trigonometric solutions to prove the values for vector components and resultants.

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.4: : Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.5: : Identify the pair of equal and opposite forces between two interacting bodies and relate their magnitudes and directions using Newton’s 3rd Law.

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.6: : Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when the system is closed.

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.7: : Evaluate the conservation of energy and momentum and deduce solutions for elastic and inelastic collisions.

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.8: : Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.9: : Develop and use a model to describe the mathematical relationship between mass, distance, and force as expressed by Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation.

Gravitational Force

Drag two objects around and observe the gravitational force between them as their positions change. The mass of each object can be adjusted, and the gravitational force is displayed both as vectors and numerically. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.10: : Analyze the motion of a projectile; appraise data, either textbook generated or laboratory collected, for motion in one and/or two dimensions, then select the correct mathematical method for communicating the value of unknown variables.

Feed the Monkey (Projectile Motion)

Fire a banana cannon at a monkey in a tree. The monkey drops from the tree at the moment the banana is fired from the cannon. Determine where to aim the cannon so the monkey catches the banana. The position of the cannon, launch angle and initial velocity of the banana can be varied. Students can observe the velocity vectors and the paths of the monkey and banana. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

1.2: : Energy

PPS.S.P.11: : Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

Observe and compare objects of different shapes as they roll or slide down an inclined plane. Compare the percentages of translational and rotational kinetic energy for each object, and see how this affects how quickly each object moves. The slope of each ramp can be adjusted, and a variety of materials can be used for the objects and ramps. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.12: : Evaluate the conservation of energy and momentum and deduce solutions for elastic and inelastic collisions.

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.14: : Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

Trebuchet

Design your own trebuchet to fling a projectile at a castle wall. All of the dimensions of the trebuchet can be adjusted, as well as the masses of the counterweight and payload. Select a target on the Launch tab, or just see how far your projectile will go. 5 Minute Preview

1.3: : States of Matter

PPS.S.P.17: : Assess the magnitude of buoyant force on submerged and floating objects.

Archimedes' Principle

Place weights into a boat and see how far the boat sinks into a tank of liquid. The depth of the boat can be measured, as well as the amount of liquid displaced. The dimensions of the boat and the density of the liquid can be adjusted. See how much weight the boat can hold before it sinks to the bottom! 5 Minute Preview

1.4: : Waves and Electromagnetic Radiation

PPS.S.P.20: : Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media while differentiating between longitudinal and transverse waves.

Longitudinal Waves

Observe the propagation of longitudinal (compression) waves in a closed or open tube with evenly-spaced dividers. The strength and frequency of the waves can be manipulated, or waves can be observed as individual pulses. Compare the movement of dividers to graphs of displacement, velocity, acceleration and pressure. 5 Minute Preview

Waves

Observe and measure transverse, longitudinal, and combined waves on a model of a spring moved by a hand. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of the hand, and the tension and density of the spring. The speed and power of the waves is reported, and the wavelength and amplitude can be measured. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.21: : Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.

Basic Prism

Shine white light or a single-color beam through a prism. Explore how a prism refracts light and investigate the factors that affect the amount of refraction. The index of refraction of the prism, width of the prism, prism angle, light angle, and light wavelength can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

Photoelectric Effect

Shoot a beam of light at a metal plate in a virtual lab and observe the effect on surface electrons. The type of metal as well as the wavelength and amount of light can be adjusted. An electric field can be created to resist the electrons and measure their initial energies. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.23: : Apply ray optics diagrams to lenses and mirrors; use the lens/mirror equation and the magnification equation to solve optics problems; justify the image results obtained by diagramming the ray optics of lenses and mirrors and/or by deducing the image information from the lens/mirror equation.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

Observe light rays that pass through a convex or concave lens. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the lens and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

Observe light rays that reflect from a convex or concave mirror. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the mirror and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.24: : Apply Snell’s Law to calculate either the angle of incidence or angle of refraction for refraction through various media.

Basic Prism

Shine white light or a single-color beam through a prism. Explore how a prism refracts light and investigate the factors that affect the amount of refraction. The index of refraction of the prism, width of the prism, prism angle, light angle, and light wavelength can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

Refraction

Determine the angle of refraction for a light beam moving from one medium to another. The angle of incidence and each index of refraction can be varied. Using the tools provided, the angle of refraction can be measured, and the wavelength and frequency of the waves in each substance can be compared as well. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.25: : Make claims about the diffraction/interference patterns produced when a wave passes through a small opening/set of openings.

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.26: : Evaluate the photon model of light with evidence of the photoelectric effect.

Photoelectric Effect

Shoot a beam of light at a metal plate in a virtual lab and observe the effect on surface electrons. The type of metal as well as the wavelength and amount of light can be adjusted. An electric field can be created to resist the electrons and measure their initial energies. 5 Minute Preview

1.5: : Electricity and Magnetism

PPS.S.P.28: : Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.

Electromagnetic Induction

Explore how a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current. A magnet can be moved up or down at a constant velocity below a loop of wire, or the loop of wire may be dragged in any direction or rotated. The magnetic and electric fields can be displayed, as well as the magnetic flux and the current in the wire. 5 Minute Preview

Magnetic Induction

Measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field at different locations in a laboratory. Compare the strength of the induced magnetic field to Earth's magnetic field. The direction and magnitude of the inducting current can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.30: : Qualitatively and quantitatively predict the interactions of charged particles when performing calculations using Coulomb’s Law.

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

PPS.S.P.31: : Construct and analyze electrical circuits and calculate Ohm’s law problems for series and parallel circuits.

Advanced Circuits

Build compound circuits with series and parallel elements. Calculate voltages, resistance, and current across each component using Ohm's law and the equivalent resistance equation. Check your answers using a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter. Learn the function of fuses as a safety device. 5 Minute Preview

Circuits

Build electrical circuits using batteries, light bulbs, resistors, fuses, wires, and a switch. An ammeter, a voltmeter and an ohmmeter are available for measuring current, voltage and resistance throughout the circuit. The voltage of the battery and the precision of the meters can be adjusted. Multiple circuits can be built for comparison. 5 Minute Preview

### ETAS: : Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

2.1: : Engineering Design

ETAS.S.P.33: : Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

GMOs and the Environment

In this follow-up to the Genetic Engineering Gizmo, explore how farmers can maximize yield while limiting ecosystem damage using genetically modified corn. Choose the corn type to plant and the amount of herbicide and insecticide to use, then measure corn yields and monitor wildlife populations and diversity. Observe the long-term effects of pollutants on a nearby stream ecosystem. 5 Minute Preview

ETAS.S.P.34: : Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

Crumple Zones

DNA Profiling

Learn how DNA is compared to identify individuals. Identify the sections of DNA that tend to differ and use PCR to amplify these segments. Then use gel electrophoresis to create DNA profiles. Based on what you have learned, create your own DNA profiling test and use this test to analyze crime scene evidence. 5 Minute Preview

GMOs and the Environment

In this follow-up to the Genetic Engineering Gizmo, explore how farmers can maximize yield while limiting ecosystem damage using genetically modified corn. Choose the corn type to plant and the amount of herbicide and insecticide to use, then measure corn yields and monitor wildlife populations and diversity. Observe the long-term effects of pollutants on a nearby stream ecosystem. 5 Minute Preview

Genetic Engineering

Use genetic engineering techniques to create corn plants resistant to insect pests or tolerant of herbicides. Identify useful genes from bacteria, insert the desired gene into a corn plant, and then compare the modified plant to a control plant in a lab setting. 5 Minute Preview

ETAS.S.P.35: : Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

Crumple Zones

GMOs and the Environment

In this follow-up to the Genetic Engineering Gizmo, explore how farmers can maximize yield while limiting ecosystem damage using genetically modified corn. Choose the corn type to plant and the amount of herbicide and insecticide to use, then measure corn yields and monitor wildlife populations and diversity. Observe the long-term effects of pollutants on a nearby stream ecosystem. 5 Minute Preview

Genetic Engineering

Use genetic engineering techniques to create corn plants resistant to insect pests or tolerant of herbicides. Identify useful genes from bacteria, insert the desired gene into a corn plant, and then compare the modified plant to a control plant in a lab setting. 5 Minute Preview

ETAS.S.P.36: : Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.

Crumple Zones

GMOs and the Environment

Correlation last revised: 8/29/2022

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