# West Virginia - Mathematics: Mathematics IV - Trigonometry/Precalculus

## WV--College- and Career-Readiness Standards | Adopted: 2015

### BR: : Building Relationships among Complex Numbers, Vectors, and Matrices

(Framing Text): : Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers.

BR.M.4HSTP.1: : Find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find moduli (magnitude) and quotients of complex numbers.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Roots of a Quadratic

Find the root of a quadratic using its graph or the quadratic formula. Explore the graph of the roots and the point of symmetry in the complex plane. Compare the axis of symmetry and graph of the quadratic in the real plane. 5 Minute Preview

(Framing Text): : Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane.

BR.M.4HSTP.2: : Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

BR.M.4HSTP.3: : Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation. (e.g., (–1 + √3 i)³ = 8 because (–1 + √ 3 i) has modulus 2 and argument 120°.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

BR.M.4HSTP.4: : Calculate the distance between numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of the difference and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints.

Points in the Complex Plane

(Framing Text): : Represent and model with vector quantities.

BR.M.4HSTP.5: : Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, |v|, ||v||, v).

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

BR.M.4HSTP.6: : Find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point.

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

BR.M.4HSTP.7: : Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors.

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

(Framing Text): : Perform operations on vectors.

BR.M.4HSTP.8: : Add and subtract vectors.

BR.M.4HSTP.8.a: : Add vectors end-to-end, component-wise, and by the parallelogram rule. Understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes.

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

BR.M.4HSTP.8.b: : Given two vectors in magnitude and direction form, determine the magnitude and direction of their sum.

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

Vectors

BR.M.4HSTP.8.c: : Understand vector subtraction v – w as v + (–w), where –w is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order and perform vector subtraction component-wise.

Adding Vectors

Vectors

BR.M.4HSTP.9: : Multiply a vector by a scalar.

BR.M.4HSTP.9.a: : Represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; perform scalar multiplication component-wise, e.g., as c(vx, vy) = (cvx, cvy).

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Vectors

BR.M.4HSTP.9.b: : Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using ||cv ||= |c|.||v||. Compute the direction of cv knowing that when |c|v ≠ 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c > 0) or against v (for c < 0).

Vectors

(Framing Text): : Perform operations on matrices and use matrices in applications.

BR.M.4HSTP.11: : Multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices (e.g., as when all of the payoffs in a game are doubled.

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

BR.M.4HSTP.12: : Add, subtract and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions.

Translations

Translate a figure horizontally and vertically in the plane and examine the matrix representation of the translation. 5 Minute Preview

BR.M.4HSTP.16: : Work with 2 × 2 matrices as transformations of the plane and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area.

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Translations

Translate a figure horizontally and vertically in the plane and examine the matrix representation of the translation. 5 Minute Preview

(Framing Text): : Solve systems of equations.

BR.M.4HSTP.17: : Represent a system of linear equations as a single matrix equation in a vector variable.

Solving Linear Systems (Matrices and Special Solutions)

Explore systems of linear equations, and how many solutions a system can have. Express systems in matrix form. See how the determinant of the coefficient matrix reveals how many solutions a system of equations has. Also, use a draggable green point to see what it means for an (*x*, *y*) point to be a solution of an equation, or of a system of equations.
5 Minute Preview

### ASF: : Analysis and Synthesis of Functions

(Framing Text): : Analyze functions using different representations.

ASF.M.4HSTP.19: : Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of an exponential function. Vary the coefficient and base of the function and investigate the changes to the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

General Form of a Rational Function

Compare the equation of a rational function to its graph. Multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by linear factors and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Graphs of Polynomial Functions

Study the graphs of polynomials up to the fourth degree. Vary the coefficients of the equation and investigate how the graph changes in response. Explore things like intercepts, end behavior, and even near-zero behavior. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of the exponential function. Vary the initial amount and base of the function. Investigate the changes to the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Factored Form

Investigate the factors of a quadratic through its graph and through its equation. Vary the roots of the quadratic and examine how the graph and the equation change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Polynomial Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in polynomial form. Vary the coefficients of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Vertex Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in vertex form. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Radical Functions

Compare the graph of a radical function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation. Explore how the graph is translated and stretched by the changes to the equation. 5 Minute Preview

Rational Functions

Compare the graph of a rational function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph is translated and stretched as a result. Examine the domain on a number line and compare it to the graph of the equation. 5 Minute Preview

(Framing Text): : Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.

ASF.M.4HSTP.20: : Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities, including composition of functions.

Function Machines 1 (Functions and Tables)

Drop a number into a function machine, and see what number comes out! You can use one of the six pre-set function machines, or program your own function rule into one of the blank machines. Stack up to three function machines together. Input and output can be recorded in a table and on a graph. 5 Minute Preview

Points, Lines, and Equations

Compare the graph of a linear function to its rule and to a table of its values. Change the function by dragging two points on the line. Examine how the rule and table change. 5 Minute Preview

(Framing Text): : Build new functions from existing functions.

ASF.M.4HSTP.21: : Find inverse functions.

ASF.M.4HSTP.21.a: : Verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another.

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

ASF.M.4HSTP.21.b: : Read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse.

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

ASF.M.4HSTP.22: : Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents.

Logarithmic Functions

*y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

### TIF: : Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions of Real Numbers

(Framing Text): : Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle.

TIF.M.4HSTP.23: : Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4 and π/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for π–x, π+x, and 2π–x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

Choose the correct steps to evaluate a trigonometric expression using sum and difference identities. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

(Framing Text): : Prove and apply trigonometric identities.

TIF.M.4HSTP.28: : Prove the addition and subtraction formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and use them to solve problems.

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

Choose the correct steps to simplify a trigonometric function. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

Choose the correct steps to evaluate a trigonometric expression using sum and difference identities. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

(Framing Text): : Apply transformations of function to trigonometric functions.

TIF.M.4HSTP.29: : Graph trigonometric functions showing key features, including phase shift.

Translating and Scaling Functions

Vary the coefficients in the equation of a function and examine how the graph of the function is translated or scaled. Select different functions to translate and scale, and determine what they have in common. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

### DAG: : Derivations in Analytic Geometry

(Framing Text): : Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section.

DAG.M.4HSTP.30: : Derive the equations of ellipses and hyperbolas given the foci, using the fact that the sum or difference of distances from the foci is constant.

Ellipses

Compare the equation of an ellipse to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the ellipse and examine how the graph changes in response. Drag the vertices and foci, explore their Pythagorean relationship, and discover the string property. 5 Minute Preview

Hyperbolas

Compare the equation of a hyperbola to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the hyperbola. Examine how the graph of the hyperbola and its asymptotes changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

### MP: : Modeling with Probability

(Framing Text): : Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems.

MP.M.4HSTP.33: : Calculate the expected value of a random variable; interpret it as the mean of the probability distribution.

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

Pick a duck, win a prize! Help Arnie the carnie design his game so that he makes money (or at least breaks even). How many ducks of each type should there be? What are the prizes worth? How much should he charge to play? Lucky Duck is a fun way to learn about probabilities and expected value. 5 Minute Preview

MP.M.4HSTP.34: : Develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which theoretical probabilities can be calculated; find the expected value. (e.g., Find the theoretical probability distribution for the number of correct answers obtained by guessing on all five questions of a multiple-choice test where each question has four choices, and find the expected grade under various grading schemes.)

Binomial Probabilities

Find the probability of a number of successes or failures in a binomial experiment using a tree diagram, a bar graph, and direct calculation. 5 Minute Preview

Geometric Probability

Randomly throw darts at a target and see what percent are "hits." Vary the size of the target and repeat the experiment. Study the relationship between the area of the target and the percent of darts that strike it 5 Minute Preview

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

Pick a duck, win a prize! Help Arnie the carnie design his game so that he makes money (or at least breaks even). How many ducks of each type should there be? What are the prizes worth? How much should he charge to play? Lucky Duck is a fun way to learn about probabilities and expected value. 5 Minute Preview

Probability Simulations

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of particular outcomes to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of a particular outcome to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

MP.M.4HSTP.35: : Develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which probabilities are assigned empirically; find the expected value.

Geometric Probability

Randomly throw darts at a target and see what percent are "hits." Vary the size of the target and repeat the experiment. Study the relationship between the area of the target and the percent of darts that strike it 5 Minute Preview

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

Pick a duck, win a prize! Help Arnie the carnie design his game so that he makes money (or at least breaks even). How many ducks of each type should there be? What are the prizes worth? How much should he charge to play? Lucky Duck is a fun way to learn about probabilities and expected value. 5 Minute Preview

Probability Simulations

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of particular outcomes to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of a particular outcome to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

(Framing Text): : Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions.

MP.M.4HSTP.36: : Weigh the possible outcomes of a decision by assigning probabilities to payoff values and finding expected values.

MP.M.4HSTP.36.a: : Find the expected payoff for a game of chance. (e.g., Find the expected winnings from a state lottery ticket or a game at a fast food restaurant.)

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

MP.M.4HSTP.36.b: : Evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values. (e.g., Compare a high-deductible versus a low-deductible automobile insurance policy using various, but reasonable, chances of having a minor or a major accident.)

Lucky Duck (Expected Value)

Correlation last revised: 1/10/2023

About STEM Cases

Students assume the role of a scientist trying to solve a real world problem. They use scientific practices to collect and analyze data, and form and test a hypothesis as they solve the problems.

Each STEM Case uses realtime reporting to show live student results.

Introduction to the Heatmap

STEM Cases take between 30-90 minutes for students to complete, depending on the case.

Student progress is automatically saved so that STEM Cases can be completed over multiple sessions.

Multiple grade-appropriate versions, or levels, exist for each STEM Case.

Each STEM Case level has an associated Handbook. These are interactive guides that focus on the science concepts underlying the case.

How Free Gizmos Work

Start teaching with
**20-40 Free Gizmos**. See the full list.

Access **lesson materials** for Free Gizmos including teacher guides, lesson plans, and more.

All other Gizmos are limited to a **5 Minute Preview** and can only be used for 5 minutes a day.

**Free Gizmos change each semester.** The new collection will be available Jul 01, 2023.

Find Your Solution

Start playing, exploring and learning today with a free account. Or contact us for a quote or demo.

Sign Up For Free Get a Quote