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- Science: Physics

# Texas - Science: Physics

## Essential Knowledge and Skills | Adopted: 2020

### P.1: : Scientific and engineering practices. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, asks questions, identifies problems, and plans and safely conducts classroom, laboratory, and field investigations to answer questions, explain phenomena, or design solutions using appropriate tools and models.

P.1.B: : The student is expected to: apply scientific practices to plan and conduct descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, and use engineering practices to design solutions to problems;

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

P.1.D: : The student is expected to: use appropriate tools such as balances, ballistic carts or equivalent, batteries, computers, constant velocity cars, convex lenses, copper wire, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), data acquisition probes and software, dynamics and force demonstration equipment, electrostatic generators, electrostatic kits, friction blocks, graph paper, graphing technology, hand-held visual spectroscopes, inclined planes, iron filings, lab masses, laser pointers, magnets, magnetic compasses, metric rulers, motion detectors, multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), optics bench, optics kit, photogates, plane mirrors, prisms, protractors, pulleys, resistors, rope or string, scientific calculators, stopwatches, springs, spring scales, switches, tuning forks, wave generators, or other equipment and materials that will produce the same results;

Circuits

Build electrical circuits using batteries, light bulbs, resistors, fuses, wires, and a switch. An ammeter, a voltmeter and an ohmmeter are available for measuring current, voltage and resistance throughout the circuit. The voltage of the battery and the precision of the meters can be adjusted. Multiple circuits can be built for comparison. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

Observe light rays that pass through a convex or concave lens. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the lens and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

Observe light rays that reflect from a convex or concave mirror. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the mirror and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

P.1.E: : The student is expected to: collect quantitative data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative data as evidence;

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

P.1.F: : The student is expected to: organize quantitative and qualitative data using bar charts, line graphs, scatter plots, data tables, labeled diagrams, and conceptual mathematical relationships;

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Magnetic Induction

Measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field at different locations in a laboratory. Compare the strength of the induced magnetic field to Earth's magnetic field. The direction and magnitude of the inducting current can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

Simple Harmonic Motion

Observe two different forms of simple harmonic motion: a pendulum and a spring supporting a mass. Use a stopwatch to measure the period of each device as you adjust the mass hanging from the spring, the spring constant, the mass of the pendulum, the length of the pendulum, and the gravitational acceleration. 5 Minute Preview

P.1.G: : The student is expected to: develop and use models to represent phenomena, systems, processes, or solutions to engineering problems; and

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

Simple Harmonic Motion

Observe two different forms of simple harmonic motion: a pendulum and a spring supporting a mass. Use a stopwatch to measure the period of each device as you adjust the mass hanging from the spring, the spring constant, the mass of the pendulum, the length of the pendulum, and the gravitational acceleration. 5 Minute Preview

Waves

Observe and measure transverse, longitudinal, and combined waves on a model of a spring moved by a hand. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of the hand, and the tension and density of the spring. The speed and power of the waves is reported, and the wavelength and amplitude can be measured. 5 Minute Preview

### P.2: : Scientific and engineering practices. The student analyzes and interprets data to derive meaning, identify features and patterns, and discover relationships or correlations to develop evidence-based arguments or evaluate designs.

P.2.B: : The student is expected to: analyze data by identifying significant statistical features, patterns, sources of error, and limitations;

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

P.2.C: : The student is expected to: use mathematical calculations to assess quantitative relationships in data; and

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Period of Mass on a Spring

Measure the period of a mass on the end of a spring. Determine the effects of gravitational acceleration, mass, and the spring constant on the period of the spring. Create an equation for the period of a spring given its mass and spring constant. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

### P.5: : Science concepts. The student knows and applies the laws governing motion in a variety of situations.

P.5.A: : The student is expected to: analyze different types of motion by generating and interpreting position versus time, velocity versus time, and acceleration versus time using hand graphing and real-time technology such as motion detectors, photogates, or digital applications;

Distance-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

P.5.B: : The student is expected to: define scalar and vector quantities related to one- and two-dimensional motion and combine vectors using both graphical vector addition and the Pythagorean theorem;

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

P.5.C: : The student is expected to: describe and analyze motion in one dimension using equations with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, frames of reference, and acceleration;

Distance-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

P.5.D: : The student is expected to: describe and analyze acceleration in uniform circular and horizontal projectile motion in two dimensions using equations;

Feed the Monkey (Projectile Motion)

Fire a banana cannon at a monkey in a tree. The monkey drops from the tree at the moment the banana is fired from the cannon. Determine where to aim the cannon so the monkey catches the banana. The position of the cannon, launch angle and initial velocity of the banana can be varied. Students can observe the velocity vectors and the paths of the monkey and banana. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

Uniform Circular Motion

Measure the position, velocity, and acceleration (both components and magnitude) of an object undergoing circular motion. The radius and velocity of the object can be controlled, along with the mass of the object. The forces acting on the object also can be recorded. 5 Minute Preview

P.5.E: : The student is expected to: explain and apply the concepts of equilibrium and inertia as represented by Newton's first law of motion using relevant real-world examples such as rockets, satellites, and automobile safety devices;

Crumple Zones

Design a car to protect a test dummy in a collision. Adjust the length and stiffness of the crumple zone and the rigidity of the safety cell to determine how the car will deform during the crash. Add seat belts and/or airbags to prevent the dummy from hitting the steering wheel. Three different body types (sedan, SUV, and subcompact) are available and a wide range of crash speeds can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

P.5.F: : The student is expected to: calculate the effect of forces on objects, including tension, friction, normal, gravity, centripetal, and applied forces, using free body diagrams and the relationship between force and acceleration as represented by Newton's second law of motion;

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Crumple Zones

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

Uniform Circular Motion

Measure the position, velocity, and acceleration (both components and magnitude) of an object undergoing circular motion. The radius and velocity of the object can be controlled, along with the mass of the object. The forces acting on the object also can be recorded. 5 Minute Preview

P.5.G: : The student is expected to: illustrate and analyze the simultaneous forces between two objects as represented in Newton's third law of motion using free body diagrams and in an experimental design scenario; and

Crumple Zones

### P.6: : Science concepts. The student knows the nature of forces in the physical world.

P.6.A: : The student is expected to: use scientific notation and predict how the magnitude of the electric force between two objects depends on their charges and the distance between their centers using Coulomb's law;

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

P.6.B: : The student is expected to: identify and describe examples of electric and magnetic forces and fields in everyday life such as generators, motors, and transformers;

Electromagnetic Induction

Explore how a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current. A magnet can be moved up or down at a constant velocity below a loop of wire, or the loop of wire may be dragged in any direction or rotated. The magnetic and electric fields can be displayed, as well as the magnetic flux and the current in the wire. 5 Minute Preview

P.6.D: : The student is expected to: analyze, design, and construct series and parallel circuits using schematics and materials such as switches, wires, resistors, lightbulbs, batteries, voltmeters, and ammeters; and

Circuit Builder

Create circuits using batteries, light bulbs, switches, fuses, and a variety of materials. Examine series and parallel circuits, conductors and insulators, and the effects of battery voltage. Thousands of different circuits can be built with this Gizmo. 5 Minute Preview

Circuits

Build electrical circuits using batteries, light bulbs, resistors, fuses, wires, and a switch. An ammeter, a voltmeter and an ohmmeter are available for measuring current, voltage and resistance throughout the circuit. The voltage of the battery and the precision of the meters can be adjusted. Multiple circuits can be built for comparison. 5 Minute Preview

P.6.E: : The student is expected to: calculate current through, potential difference across, resistance of, and power used by electric circuit elements connected in both series and parallel circuits using Ohm's law.

Advanced Circuits

Build compound circuits with series and parallel elements. Calculate voltages, resistance, and current across each component using Ohm's law and the equivalent resistance equation. Check your answers using a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter. Learn the function of fuses as a safety device. 5 Minute Preview

Circuits

Build electrical circuits using batteries, light bulbs, resistors, fuses, wires, and a switch. An ammeter, a voltmeter and an ohmmeter are available for measuring current, voltage and resistance throughout the circuit. The voltage of the battery and the precision of the meters can be adjusted. Multiple circuits can be built for comparison. 5 Minute Preview

### P.7: : Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and applies the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

P.7.A: : The student is expected to: calculate and explain work and power in one dimension and identify when work is and is not being done by or on a system;

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

P.7.B: : The student is expected to: investigate and calculate mechanical, kinetic, and potential energy of a system;

Energy of a Pendulum

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Potential Energy on Shelves

Compare the potential energy of several objects when you place them on shelves of different heights. Learn that two objects at different heights can have the same potential energy, while two objects at the same height can have different potential energies. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Sled Wars

Explore acceleration, speed, momentum, and energy by sending a sled down a hill into a group of snowmen. The starting height and mass of the sled can be changed, as well as the number of snowmen. In the Two sleds scenario, observe collisions between sleds of different masses and starting heights. 5 Minute Preview

P.7.C: : The student is expected to: apply the concept of conservation of energy using the work-energy theorem, energy diagrams, and energy transformation equations, including transformations between kinetic, potential, and thermal energy;

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

Crumple Zones

Energy of a Pendulum

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Roller Coaster Physics

Sled Wars

Explore acceleration, speed, momentum, and energy by sending a sled down a hill into a group of snowmen. The starting height and mass of the sled can be changed, as well as the number of snowmen. In the Two sleds scenario, observe collisions between sleds of different masses and starting heights. 5 Minute Preview

P.7.D: : The student is expected to: calculate and describe the impulse and momentum of objects in physical systems such as automobile safety features, athletics, and rockets; and

Air Track

Roller Coaster Physics

Sled Wars

Explore acceleration, speed, momentum, and energy by sending a sled down a hill into a group of snowmen. The starting height and mass of the sled can be changed, as well as the number of snowmen. In the Two sleds scenario, observe collisions between sleds of different masses and starting heights. 5 Minute Preview

P.7.E: : The student is expected to: analyze the conservation of momentum qualitatively in inelastic and elastic collisions in one dimension using models, diagrams, and simulations.

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

Air Track

### P.8: : Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves.

P.8.A: : The student is expected to: examine and describe simple harmonic motion such as masses on springs and pendulums and wave energy propagation in various types of media such as surface waves on a body of water and pulses in ropes;

Period of Mass on a Spring

Measure the period of a mass on the end of a spring. Determine the effects of gravitational acceleration, mass, and the spring constant on the period of the spring. Create an equation for the period of a spring given its mass and spring constant. 5 Minute Preview

Period of a Pendulum

Practice measuring the period of a pendulum. Perform experiments to determine how mass, length, gravitational acceleration, and angle affect the period of a pendulum. 5 Minute Preview

Simple Harmonic Motion

Observe two different forms of simple harmonic motion: a pendulum and a spring supporting a mass. Use a stopwatch to measure the period of each device as you adjust the mass hanging from the spring, the spring constant, the mass of the pendulum, the length of the pendulum, and the gravitational acceleration. 5 Minute Preview

Waves

Observe and measure transverse, longitudinal, and combined waves on a model of a spring moved by a hand. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of the hand, and the tension and density of the spring. The speed and power of the waves is reported, and the wavelength and amplitude can be measured. 5 Minute Preview

P.8.B: : The student is expected to: compare the characteristics of transverse and longitudinal waves, including electromagnetic and sound waves;

Waves

Observe and measure transverse, longitudinal, and combined waves on a model of a spring moved by a hand. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of the hand, and the tension and density of the spring. The speed and power of the waves is reported, and the wavelength and amplitude can be measured. 5 Minute Preview

P.8.C: : The student is expected to: investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and calculate using the relationships between wave speed, frequency, and wavelength;

Waves

P.8.D: : The student is expected to: investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, standing wave, the Doppler effect and polarization and superposition; and

Doppler Shift

Observe sound waves emitted from a moving vehicle. Measure the frequency of sound waves in front of and behind the vehicle as it moves, illustrating the Doppler effect. The frequency of sound waves, speed of the source, and the speed of sound can all be manipulated. Motion of the vehicle can be linear, oscillating, or circular. 5 Minute Preview

Doppler Shift Advanced

Derive an equation to calculate the frequency of an oncoming sound source and a receding sound source. Also, calculate the Doppler shift that results from a moving observer and a stationary sound source. The source velocity, sound velocity, observer velocity, and sound frequency can all be manipulated. 5 Minute Preview

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

P.8.G: : The student is expected to: describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens.

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

Observe light rays that pass through a convex or concave lens. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the lens and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

Observe light rays that reflect from a convex or concave mirror. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the mirror and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

### P.9: : Science concepts. The student knows examples of quantum phenomena and their applications.

P.9.A: : The student is expected to: describe the photoelectric effect and emission spectra produced by various atoms and how both are explained by the photon model for light;

Photoelectric Effect

Shoot a beam of light at a metal plate in a virtual lab and observe the effect on surface electrons. The type of metal as well as the wavelength and amount of light can be adjusted. An electric field can be created to resist the electrons and measure their initial energies. 5 Minute Preview

Correlation last revised: 6/29/2023

About STEM Cases

Students assume the role of a scientist trying to solve a real world problem. They use scientific practices to collect and analyze data, and form and test a hypothesis as they solve the problems.

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