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- Mathematics: 8th Grade

# Alabama - Mathematics: 8th Grade

## Course of Study | Adopted: 2019

### NO: : Number Systems and Operations

1.1: : Understand that the real number system is composed of rational and irrational numbers.

NO.1: : Students will… Define the real number system as composed of rational and irrational numbers.

NO.1.a: : Explain that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers, the decimal expansion repeats or terminates.

Circumference and Area of Circles

Resize a circle and compare its radius, circumference, and area. 5 Minute Preview

Percents, Fractions, and Decimals

Compare a quantity represented by an area with its percent, fraction, and decimal forms. 5 Minute Preview

NO.2: : Students will… Locate rational approximations of irrational numbers on a number line, compare their sizes, and estimate the values of the irrational numbers.

Circumference and Area of Circles

Resize a circle and compare its radius, circumference, and area. 5 Minute Preview

Square Roots

Explore the meaning of square roots using an area model. Use the side length of a square to find the square root of a decimal number or a whole number. 5 Minute Preview

### AF: : Algebra and Functions

2.1: : Apply concepts of integer exponents and radicals.

AF.3: : Students will… Develop and apply properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical and algebraic expressions.

Dividing Exponential Expressions

Choose the correct steps to divide exponential expressions. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Exponents and Power Rules

Choose the correct steps to simplify expressions with exponents using the rules of exponents and powers. Use feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Multiplying Exponential Expressions

Choose the correct steps to multiply exponential expressions. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

AF.4: : Students will… Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations.

AF.4.a: : Evaluate square roots of perfect squares (less than or equal to 225) and cube roots of perfect cubes (less than or equal to 1000).

Square Roots

Explore the meaning of square roots using an area model. Use the side length of a square to find the square root of a decimal number or a whole number. 5 Minute Preview

AF.5: : Students will… Estimate and compare very large or very small numbers in scientific notation.

Number Systems

Explore number systems and convert numbers from one base to another using counter beads in place-value columns. 5 Minute Preview

Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

Use the Unit Conversions Gizmo to explore the concepts of scientific notation and significant digits. Convert numbers to and from scientific notation. Determine the number of significant digits in a measured value and in a calculation. 5 Minute Preview

AF.6: : Students will… Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used.

AF.6.a: : Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities.

Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

Use the Unit Conversions Gizmo to explore the concepts of scientific notation and significant digits. Convert numbers to and from scientific notation. Determine the number of significant digits in a measured value and in a calculation. 5 Minute Preview

2.2: : Analyze the relationship between proportional and non-proportional situations.

AF.7: : Students will… Determine whether a relationship between two variables is proportional or non-proportional.

Direct and Inverse Variation

Adjust the constant of variation and explore how the graph of the direct or inverse variation function changes in response. Compare direct variation functions to inverse variation functions. 5 Minute Preview

AF.8: : Students will… Graph proportional relationships.

AF.8.a: : Interpret the unit rate of a proportional relationship, describing the constant of proportionality as the slope of the graph which goes through the origin and has the equation y = mx where m is the slope.

Direct and Inverse Variation

Adjust the constant of variation and explore how the graph of the direct or inverse variation function changes in response. Compare direct variation functions to inverse variation functions. 5 Minute Preview

AF.9: : Students will… Interpret y = mx + b as defining a linear equation whose graph is a line with m as the slope and b as the y-intercept.

AF.9.a: : Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in a coordinate plane.

Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

Compare the slope-intercept form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

AF.9.b: : Given two distinct points in a coordinate plane, find the slope of the line containing the two points and explain why it will be the same for any two distinct points on the line.

Slope

Explore the slope of a line, and learn how to calculate slope. Adjust the line by moving points that are on the line, and see how its slope changes. 5 Minute Preview

AF.9.c: : Graph linear relationships, interpreting the slope as the rate of change of the graph and the y-intercept as the initial value.

Point-Slope Form of a Line

Compare the point-slope form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

Compare the slope-intercept form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

AF.9.d: : Given that the slopes for two different sets of points are equal, demonstrate that the linear equations that include those two sets of points may have different y-intercepts.

Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

Compare the slope-intercept form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

AF.10: : Students will… Compare proportional and non-proportional linear relationships represented in different ways (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions) to solve real-world problems.

Direct and Inverse Variation

Adjust the constant of variation and explore how the graph of the direct or inverse variation function changes in response. Compare direct variation functions to inverse variation functions. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

2.3: : Analyze and solve linear equations and systems of two linear equations.

AF.11: : Students will… Solve multi-step linear equations in one variable, including rational number coefficients, and equations that require using the distributive property and combining like terms.

AF.11.a: : Determine whether linear equations in one variable have one solution, no solution, or infinitely many solutions of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b (where a and b are different numbers).

Solving Equations by Graphing Each Side

Solve an equation by graphing each side and finding the intersection of the lines. Vary the coefficients in the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

AF.11.b: : Represent and solve real-world and mathematical problems with equations and interpret each solution in the context of the problem.

Modeling and Solving Two-Step Equations

Solve a two-step equation using a cup-and-counter model. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose and correct incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Algebraic Equations II

Is solving equations tricky? If you know how to isolate a variable, you're halfway there. The other half? Don't do anything to upset the balance of an equation. Join our plucky variable friend as he encounters algebraic equations and a (sometimes grumpy) equal sign. With a little practice, you'll find that solving equations isn't tricky at all. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Equations by Graphing Each Side

Solve an equation by graphing each side and finding the intersection of the lines. Vary the coefficients in the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Two-Step Equations

Choose the correct steps to solve a two-step equation. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

AF.12: : Students will… Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables by graphing and substitution.

AF.12.a: : Explain that the solution(s) of systems of two linear equations in two variables corresponds to points of intersection on their graphs because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

Solving Equations by Graphing Each Side

Solve an equation by graphing each side and finding the intersection of the lines. Vary the coefficients in the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Linear Systems (Slope-Intercept Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, given in slope-intercept form, both graphically and algebraically. Use a draggable green point to examine what it means for an *x*, *y*)

Solving Linear Systems (Standard Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, written in standard form. Explore what it means to solve systems algebraically (with substitution or elimination) and graphically. Also, use a draggable green point to see what it means when (*x*, *y*) values are solutions of an equation, or of a system of equations.
5 Minute Preview

AF.12.b: : Interpret and justify the results of systems of two linear equations in two variables (one solution, no solution, or infinitely many solutions) when applied to real-world and mathematical problems.

Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)

Experiment with a system of two lines representing a cat-and-mouse chase. Adjust the speeds of the cat and mouse and the head start of the mouse, and immediately see the effects on the graph and on the chase. Connect real-world meaning to slope, y-intercept, and the intersection of lines. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Linear Systems (Slope-Intercept Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, given in slope-intercept form, both graphically and algebraically. Use a draggable green point to examine what it means for an *x*, *y*)

Solving Linear Systems (Standard Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, written in standard form. Explore what it means to solve systems algebraically (with substitution or elimination) and graphically. Also, use a draggable green point to see what it means when (*x*, *y*) values are solutions of an equation, or of a system of equations.
5 Minute Preview

2.4: : Explain, evaluate, and compare functions.

AF.13: : Students will… Determine whether a relation is a function, defining a function as a rule that assigns to each input (independent value) exactly one output (dependent value), and given a graph, table, mapping, or set of ordered pairs.

Introduction to Functions

Determine if a relation is a function using the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or the graph of the relation. Drag arrows from the domain to the range, type in ordered pairs, or drag points to the graph to add inputs and outputs to the relation. 5 Minute Preview

Linear Functions

Determine if a relation is a function from the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or graph. Use the graph to determine if it is linear. 5 Minute Preview

AF.14: : Students will… Evaluate functions defined by a rule or an equation, given values for the independent variable.

Points, Lines, and Equations

Compare the graph of a linear function to its rule and to a table of its values. Change the function by dragging two points on the line. Examine how the rule and table change. 5 Minute Preview

AF.15: : Students will… Compare properties of functions represented algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions.

AF.15.a: : Distinguish between linear and non-linear functions.

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Linear Functions

Determine if a relation is a function from the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or graph. Use the graph to determine if it is linear. 5 Minute Preview

2.5: : Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

AF.16: : Students will… Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two variables.

AF.16.a: : Interpret the rate of change (slope) and initial value of the linear function from a description of a relationship or from two points in a table or graph.

Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)

Experiment with a system of two lines representing a cat-and-mouse chase. Adjust the speeds of the cat and mouse and the head start of the mouse, and immediately see the effects on the graph and on the chase. Connect real-world meaning to slope, y-intercept, and the intersection of lines. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

AF.17: : Students will… Analyze the relationship (increasing or decreasing, linear or non-linear) between two quantities represented in a graph.

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Linear Functions

Determine if a relation is a function from the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or graph. Use the graph to determine if it is linear. 5 Minute Preview

### DSP: : Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability

3.1: : Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.

DSP.18: : Students will… Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities, describing patterns in terms of positive, negative, or no association, linear and non-linear association, clustering, and outliers.

Correlation

Explore the relationship between the correlation coefficient of a data set and its graph. Fit a line to the data and compare the least-squares fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Using Trend Lines

Examine the scatter plots for data related to weather at different latitudes. The Gizmo includes three different data sets, one with negative correlation, one positive, and one with no correlation. Compare the least squares best-fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Trends in Scatter Plots

Examine the scatter plot for a random data set with negative or positive correlation. Vary the correlation and explore how correlation is reflected in the scatter plot and the trend line. 5 Minute Preview

DSP.19: : Students will… Given a scatter plot that suggests a linear association, informally draw a line to fit the data, and assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.

Correlation

Explore the relationship between the correlation coefficient of a data set and its graph. Fit a line to the data and compare the least-squares fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Using Trend Lines

Examine the scatter plots for data related to weather at different latitudes. The Gizmo includes three different data sets, one with negative correlation, one positive, and one with no correlation. Compare the least squares best-fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Trends in Scatter Plots

Examine the scatter plot for a random data set with negative or positive correlation. Vary the correlation and explore how correlation is reflected in the scatter plot and the trend line. 5 Minute Preview

DSP.20: : Students will… Use a linear model of a real-world situation to solve problems and make predictions.

DSP.20.a: : Describe the rate of change and y-intercept in the context of a problem using a linear model of a real-world situation.

Correlation

Explore the relationship between the correlation coefficient of a data set and its graph. Fit a line to the data and compare the least-squares fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Using Trend Lines

Examine the scatter plots for data related to weather at different latitudes. The Gizmo includes three different data sets, one with negative correlation, one positive, and one with no correlation. Compare the least squares best-fit line. 5 Minute Preview

Trends in Scatter Plots

Examine the scatter plot for a random data set with negative or positive correlation. Vary the correlation and explore how correlation is reflected in the scatter plot and the trend line. 5 Minute Preview

DSP.21: : Students will… Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects, using relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible associations between the two variables.

Polling: City

Poll residents in a large city to determine their response to a yes-or-no question. Estimate the actual percentage of yes votes in the whole city. Examine the results of many polls to help assess how reliable the results from a single poll are. See how the normal curve approximates a binomial distribution for large enough polls. 5 Minute Preview

### GM: : Geometry and Measurement

4.1: : Understand congruence and similarity using physical models or technology.

GM.22: : Students will… Verify experimentally the properties of rigid motions (rotations, reflections, and translations): lines are taken to lines, and line segments are taken to line segments of the same length; angles are taken to angles of the same measure; and parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.

GM.22.a: : Given a pair of two-dimensional figures, determine if a series of rigid motions maps one figure onto the other, recognizing that if such a sequence exists the figures are congruent; describe the transformation sequence that verifies a congruence relationship.

Reflections

Reshape and resize a figure and examine how its reflection changes in response. Move the line of reflection and explore how the reflection is translated. 5 Minute Preview

Rotations, Reflections, and Translations

Rotate, reflect, and translate a figure in the plane. Compare the translated figure to the original figure. 5 Minute Preview

GM.23: : Students will… Use coordinates to describe the effect of transformations (dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections) on two-dimensional figures.

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Rotations, Reflections, and Translations

Rotate, reflect, and translate a figure in the plane. Compare the translated figure to the original figure. 5 Minute Preview

GM.24: : Students will… Given a pair of two-dimensional figures, determine if a series of dilations and rigid motions maps one figure onto the other, recognizing that if such a sequence exists the figures are similar; describe the transformation sequence that exhibits the similarity between them.

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Similar Figures

Vary the scale factor and rotation of an image and compare it to the preimage. Determine how the angle measures and side lengths of the two figures are related. 5 Minute Preview

4.2: : Analyze parallel lines cut by a transversal.

GM.25: : Students will… Analyze and apply properties of parallel lines cut by a transversal to determine missing angle measures.

GM.25.a: : Use informal arguments to establish that the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180 degrees.

Triangle Angle Sum

Measure the interior angles of a triangle and find the sum. Examine whether that sum is the same for all triangles. Also, discover how the measure of an exterior angle relates to the interior angle measures. 5 Minute Preview

4.3: : Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.

GM.26: : Students will… Informally justify the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse.

Pythagorean Theorem

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem using a dynamic right triangle. Examine a visual, geometric application of the Pythagorean Theorem, using the areas of squares on the sides of the triangle. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

Build right triangles in an interactive geoboard and build squares on the sides of the triangles to discover the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 Minute Preview

GM.27: : Students will… Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate plane.

Distance Formula

Explore the distance formula as an application of the Pythagorean theorem. Learn to see any two points as the endpoints of the hypotenuse of a right triangle. Drag those points and examine changes to the triangle and the distance calculation. 5 Minute Preview

GM.28: : Students will… Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths of right triangles, including real-world applications.

Pythagorean Theorem

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem using a dynamic right triangle. Examine a visual, geometric application of the Pythagorean Theorem, using the areas of squares on the sides of the triangle. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

Build right triangles in an interactive geoboard and build squares on the sides of the triangles to discover the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 Minute Preview

4.4: : Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.

GM.29: : Students will… Informally derive the formulas for the volume of cones and spheres by experimentally comparing the volumes of cones and spheres with the same radius and height to a cylinder with the same dimensions.

Pyramids and Cones

Vary the height and base-edge or radius length of a pyramid or cone and examine how its three-dimensional representation changes. Determine the area of the base and the volume of the solid. Compare the volume of a skew pyramid or cone to the volume of a right pyramid or cone. 5 Minute Preview

GM.30: : Students will… Use formulas to calculate the volumes of three-dimensional figures (cylinders, cones, and spheres) to solve real-world problems.

Prisms and Cylinders

Vary the height and base-edge or radius length of a prism or cylinder and examine how its three-dimensional representation changes. Determine the area of the base and the volume of the solid. Compare the volume of an oblique prism or cylinder to the volume of a right prism or cylinder. 5 Minute Preview

Pyramids and Cones

Vary the height and base-edge or radius length of a pyramid or cone and examine how its three-dimensional representation changes. Determine the area of the base and the volume of the solid. Compare the volume of a skew pyramid or cone to the volume of a right pyramid or cone. 5 Minute Preview

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

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