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- Mathematics: Pre-Calculus

# Arkansas - Mathematics: Pre-Calculus

## Curriculum Framework | Adopted: 2016

### NQ: : Number and Quantity

NQ.1.PC: : Students will use complex numbers and determine how polar and rectangular coordinates are related.

NQ.1.PC.1: : Find the conjugate of a complex number. Use conjugates to find quotients of complex numbers. Use conjugates to find moduli.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Roots of a Quadratic

Find the root of a quadratic using its graph or the quadratic formula. Explore the graph of the roots and the point of symmetry in the complex plane. Compare the axis of symmetry and graph of the quadratic in the real plane. 5 Minute Preview

NQ.1.PC.2: : Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers). Explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

NQ.1.PC.3: : Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; Use properties of geometrical representation for computation.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

NQ.2.PC: : Students will perform operations with vectors and use those skills to solve problems.

NQ.2.PC.1: : Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., 𝙫, |𝙫|, ||𝙫||, 𝘷).

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

NQ.2.PC.2: : Find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point.

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

NQ.2.PC.3: : Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors.

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

NQ.2.PC.4: : Add and subtract vectors. Add vectors end-to-end, component-wise, and by the parallelogram rule. Understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes. Given two vectors in magnitude and direction form, determine the magnitude and direction of their sum. Understand vector subtraction 𝙫 – 𝙬 as 𝙫 + (–𝙬), where –𝙬 is the additive inverse of 𝙬, with the same magnitude as 𝙬 and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order. Perform vector subtraction component-wise.

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

Vectors

Manipulate the magnitudes and directions of two vectors to generate a sum and learn vector addition. The x and y components can be displayed, along with the dot product of the two vectors. 5 Minute Preview

NQ.2.PC.5: : Multiply a vector by a scalar. Represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; Perform scalar multiplication component-wise, e.g., as 𝘤(𝘷ₓ, 𝘷 subscript 𝘺) = (𝘤𝘷ₓ, 𝘤𝘷 subscript 𝘺). Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple 𝘤𝙫 using ||𝘤𝙫|| = |𝘤|𝙫. Compute the direction of 𝘤𝙫 knowing that when |𝘤|𝙫 ≠ 0, the direction of 𝘤𝙫 is either along 𝙫 (for 𝘤 > 0) or against 𝙫 (for 𝘤 < 0).

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Vectors

### T: : Trigonometry

T.3.PC: : Students will develop and apply the definitions of the six trigonometric functions and use the definitions to solve problems and verify identities.

T.3.PC.2: : Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed around the unit circle.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

T.3.PC.3: : Use special right triangles to determine geometrically the exact values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4, π/6, and π/2. Use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for π–𝑥, π+𝑥, and 2π–𝑥 in terms of their exact values for 𝑥, where 𝑥 is any real number.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

Choose the correct steps to evaluate a trigonometric expression using sum and difference identities. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

T.3.PC.4: : Develop the Pythagorean identity, sin²(θ) + cos²(θ) = 1. Given sin(θ), cos(θ), or tan(θ) and the quadrant of the angle, use the Pythagorean identity to find the remaining trigonometric functions.

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

Choose the correct steps to simplify a trigonometric function. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios

Reshape and resize a right triangle and examine how the sine of angle A, the cosine of angle A, and the tangent of angle A change. 5 Minute Preview

T.3.PC.5: : Develop the addition and subtraction formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and use them to solve problems.

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

Choose the correct steps to simplify a trigonometric function. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

Choose the correct steps to evaluate a trigonometric expression using sum and difference identities. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

T.4.PC: : Students will solve trigonometric equations and sketch the graph of periodic trigonometric functions.

T.4.PC.2: : Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline.

Sound Beats and Sine Waves

Listen to and see interference patterns produced by sound waves with similar frequencies. Test your ability to distinguish and match sounds as musicians do when they tune their instruments. Calculate the number of "sound beats" you will hear based on the frequency of each sound. [Note: Headphones are recommended for this Gizmo.] 5 Minute Preview

### CS: : Conic Sections

CS.5.PC: : Students will identify, analyze, and sketch the graphs of the conic sections and relate their equations and graphs.

CS.5.PC.1: : Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem. Complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.

Circles

Compare the graph of a circle with its equation. Vary the terms in the equation and explore how the circle is translated and scaled in response. 5 Minute Preview

Distance Formula

Explore the distance formula as an application of the Pythagorean theorem. Learn to see any two points as the endpoints of the hypotenuse of a right triangle. Drag those points and examine changes to the triangle and the distance calculation. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem using a dynamic right triangle. Examine a visual, geometric application of the Pythagorean Theorem, using the areas of squares on the sides of the triangle. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

Build right triangles in an interactive geoboard and build squares on the sides of the triangles to discover the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 Minute Preview

CS.5.PC.2: : Derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and directrix.

Parabolas

Explore parabolas in a conic section context. Find the relationship among the vertex, focus, and directrix of a parabola, and how that relates to its equation. 5 Minute Preview

CS.5.PC.3: : Derive the equations of ellipses and hyperbolas given the foci, using the fact that the sum or difference of distances from the foci is constant.

Ellipses

Compare the equation of an ellipse to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the ellipse and examine how the graph changes in response. Drag the vertices and foci, explore their Pythagorean relationship, and discover the string property. 5 Minute Preview

Hyperbolas

Compare the equation of a hyperbola to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the hyperbola. Examine how the graph of the hyperbola and its asymptotes changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

CS.5.PC.4: : Find the equations for the asymptotes of a hyperbola.

Hyperbolas

Compare the equation of a hyperbola to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the hyperbola. Examine how the graph of the hyperbola and its asymptotes changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Rational Functions

Compare the graph of a rational function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph is translated and stretched as a result. Examine the domain on a number line and compare it to the graph of the equation. 5 Minute Preview

CS.5.PC.5: : Complete the square in order to generate an equivalent form of an equation for a conic section; use that equivalent form to identify key characteristics of the conic section.

Circles

Compare the graph of a circle with its equation. Vary the terms in the equation and explore how the circle is translated and scaled in response. 5 Minute Preview

CS.5.PC.6: : Identify, graph, write, and analyze equations of each type of conic section, using properties such as symmetry, intercepts, foci, asymptotes, and eccentricity, and using technology when appropriate.

Addition and Subtraction of Functions

Explore the graphs of two polynomials and the graph of their sum or difference. Vary the coefficients in the polynomials and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Circles

Compare the graph of a circle with its equation. Vary the terms in the equation and explore how the circle is translated and scaled in response. 5 Minute Preview

Ellipses

Compare the equation of an ellipse to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the ellipse and examine how the graph changes in response. Drag the vertices and foci, explore their Pythagorean relationship, and discover the string property. 5 Minute Preview

Hyperbolas

Compare the equation of a hyperbola to its graph. Vary the terms of the equation of the hyperbola. Examine how the graph of the hyperbola and its asymptotes changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Parabolas

Explore parabolas in a conic section context. Find the relationship among the vertex, focus, and directrix of a parabola, and how that relates to its equation. 5 Minute Preview

Rational Functions

Compare the graph of a rational function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph is translated and stretched as a result. Examine the domain on a number line and compare it to the graph of the equation. 5 Minute Preview

CS.5.PC.7: : Solve systems of equations and inequalities involving conics and other types of equations, with and without appropriate technology.

Linear Programming

Use the graph of the feasible region to find the maximum or minimum value of the objective function. Vary the coefficients of the objective function and vary the constraints. Explore how the graph of the feasible region changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Equations by Graphing Each Side

Solve an equation by graphing each side and finding the intersection of the lines. Vary the coefficients in the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Solving Linear Systems (Matrices and Special Solutions)

Explore systems of linear equations, and how many solutions a system can have. Express systems in matrix form. See how the determinant of the coefficient matrix reveals how many solutions a system of equations has. Also, use a draggable green point to see what it means for an (*x*, *y*) point to be a solution of an equation, or of a system of equations.
5 Minute Preview

Solving Linear Systems (Standard Form)

Solve systems of linear equations, written in standard form. Explore what it means to solve systems algebraically (with substitution or elimination) and graphically. Also, use a draggable green point to see what it means when (*x*, *y*) values are solutions of an equation, or of a system of equations.
5 Minute Preview

Systems of Linear Inequalities (Slope-intercept form)

Compare a system of linear inequalities to its graph. Vary the coefficients and inequality symbols in the system and explore how the boundary lines, shaded regions, and the intersection of the shaded regions change in response. 5 Minute Preview

### F: : Functions

F.6.PC: : Students will be able to find the inverse of functions and use composition of functions to prove that two functions are inverses.

F.6.PC.1: : Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. From a context, determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation. Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. (e.g., given that f(x) and g(x) are functions developed from a context, find (f + g)(x), (f – g)(x), (fg)(x), (f/g)(x), and any combination thereof, given 𝑔(𝑥) ≠ 0.) Compose functions.

Addition and Subtraction of Functions

Explore the graphs of two polynomials and the graph of their sum or difference. Vary the coefficients in the polynomials and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Arithmetic Sequences

Find the value of individual terms in arithmetic sequences using graphs of the sequences and direct computation. Vary the common difference and examine how the sequences change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences

Find the value of individual terms in an arithmetic or geometric sequence using graphs of the sequence and direct computation. Vary the common difference and common ratio and examine how the sequence changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Function Machines 1 (Functions and Tables)

Drop a number into a function machine, and see what number comes out! You can use one of the six pre-set function machines, or program your own function rule into one of the blank machines. Stack up to three function machines together. Input and output can be recorded in a table and on a graph. 5 Minute Preview

Geometric Sequences

Explore geometric sequences by varying the initial term and the common ratio and examining the graph. Compute specific terms in the sequence using the explicit and recursive formulas. 5 Minute Preview

F.6.PC.3: : Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms. Use the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms to solve problems.

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

F.7.PC: : Students will be able to interpret different types of functions and their key characteristics including polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, power, trigonometric, rational, and other types of functions.

F.7.PC.3: : Know and apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (𝘹 + 𝘺)ⁿ in powers of 𝘹 and y for a positive integer 𝘯, where 𝘹 and 𝘺 are any numbers with coefficients determined for example by Pascal's Triangle.

Binomial Probabilities

Find the probability of a number of successes or failures in a binomial experiment using a tree diagram, a bar graph, and direct calculation. 5 Minute Preview

F.7.PC.4: : For a function that models a relationship between two quantities: Interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship.

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of an exponential function. Vary the coefficient and base of the function and investigate the changes to the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

Function Machines 3 (Functions and Problem Solving)

Drop a number into a function machine, and see what number comes out! You can use one of the six pre-set function machines, or program your own function rule into one of the blank machines. Stack up to three function machines together. Input and output can be recorded in a table and on a graph. 5 Minute Preview

General Form of a Rational Function

Compare the equation of a rational function to its graph. Multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by linear factors and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Graphs of Polynomial Functions

Study the graphs of polynomials up to the fourth degree. Vary the coefficients of the equation and investigate how the graph changes in response. Explore things like intercepts, end behavior, and even near-zero behavior. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

Points, Lines, and Equations

Compare the graph of a linear function to its rule and to a table of its values. Change the function by dragging two points on the line. Examine how the rule and table change. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Factored Form

Investigate the factors of a quadratic through its graph and through its equation. Vary the roots of the quadratic and examine how the graph and the equation change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Polynomial Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in polynomial form. Vary the coefficients of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Vertex Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in vertex form. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Radical Functions

Compare the graph of a radical function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation. Explore how the graph is translated and stretched by the changes to the equation. 5 Minute Preview

F.7.PC.5: : Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented algebraically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.

Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)

Experiment with a system of two lines representing a cat-and-mouse chase. Adjust the speeds of the cat and mouse and the head start of the mouse, and immediately see the effects on the graph and on the chase. Connect real-world meaning to slope, y-intercept, and the intersection of lines. 5 Minute Preview

Slope

Explore the slope of a line, and learn how to calculate slope. Adjust the line by moving points that are on the line, and see how its slope changes. 5 Minute Preview

F.7.PC.6: : Graph functions expressed algebraically and show key features of the graph, with and without technology. Graph linear and quadratic functions and, when applicable, show intercepts, maxima, and minima. Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions. Graph power and polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior. Graph trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)

Experiment with a system of two lines representing a cat-and-mouse chase. Adjust the speeds of the cat and mouse and the head start of the mouse, and immediately see the effects on the graph and on the chase. Connect real-world meaning to slope, y-intercept, and the intersection of lines. 5 Minute Preview

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of an exponential function. Vary the coefficient and base of the function and investigate the changes to the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

Linear Functions

Determine if a relation is a function from the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or graph. Use the graph to determine if it is linear. 5 Minute Preview

Point-Slope Form of a Line

Compare the point-slope form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Points, Lines, and Equations

Compare the graph of a linear function to its rule and to a table of its values. Change the function by dragging two points on the line. Examine how the rule and table change. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Factored Form

Investigate the factors of a quadratic through its graph and through its equation. Vary the roots of the quadratic and examine how the graph and the equation change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Polynomial Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in polynomial form. Vary the coefficients of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Vertex Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in vertex form. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Radical Functions

Compare the graph of a radical function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation. Explore how the graph is translated and stretched by the changes to the equation. 5 Minute Preview

Roots of a Quadratic

Find the root of a quadratic using its graph or the quadratic formula. Explore the graph of the roots and the point of symmetry in the complex plane. Compare the axis of symmetry and graph of the quadratic in the real plane. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

Compare the slope-intercept form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Standard Form of a Line

Compare the standard form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Functions

Vary the coefficients in the equation of a function and examine how the graph of the function is translated or scaled. Select different functions to translate and scale, and determine what they have in common. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

Zap It! Game

Adjust the values in a quadratic function, in vertex form or in polynomial form, to "zap" as many data points as possible. 5 Minute Preview

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

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