# Physics (2005)

### Physics

Chapter 1: A Physics Toolkit

Slope

Explore the slope of a line, and learn how to calculate slope. Adjust the line by moving points that are on the line, and see how its slope changes. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 2: Representing Motion

Distance-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-yard dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 3: Accelerated Motion

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 4: Forces in One Dimension

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 5: Forces in Two Dimensions

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Period of a Pendulum

Practice measuring the period of a pendulum. Perform experiments to determine how mass, length, gravitational acceleration, and angle affect the period of a pendulum. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 6: Motion in Two Dimensions

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

Feed the Monkey (Projectile Motion)

Fire a banana cannon at a monkey in a tree. The monkey drops from the tree at the moment the banana is fired from the cannon. Determine where to aim the cannon so the monkey catches the banana. The position of the cannon, launch angle and initial velocity of the banana can be varied. Students can observe the velocity vectors and the paths of the monkey and banana. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 7: Gravitation

Gravitational Force

Drag two objects around and observe the gravitational force between them as their positions change. The mass of each object can be adjusted, and the gravitational force is displayed both as vectors and numerically. 5 Minute Preview

Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws

Learn Kepler's three laws of planetary motion by examining the orbit of a planet around a star. The initial position, velocity, and mass of the planet can be varied as well as the mass of the star. The foci and centers of orbits can be displayed and compared to the location of the star. The area swept out by the planet in a given time period can be measured, and data on orbital radii and periods can be plotted in several ways. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 8: Rotational Motion

Torque and Moment of Inertia

One of the simplest machines is a see-saw lever. Place up to eight objects on the lever at different locations and try to balance it. Calculate net torque and moment of inertia based on the positions of the objects and the mass of the bar. The mass of each object can be changed, and the fulcrum position can be shifted as well. 5 Minute Preview

Moment of Inertia

Place masses on a circular table and see how fast it spins when struck by a piston. Discover the relationships between angular velocity, mass, radius and moment of inertia for collections of point-masses, rings, disks, and more complex shapes. 5 Minute Preview

Uniform Circular Motion

Measure the position, velocity, and acceleration (both components and magnitude) of an object undergoing circular motion. The radius and velocity of the object can be controlled, along with the mass of the object. The forces acting on the object also can be recorded. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 9: Momentum and Its Conservation

2D Collisions

Investigate elastic collisions in two dimensions using two frictionless pucks. The mass, velocity, and initial position of each puck can be modified to create a variety of scenarios. 5 Minute Preview

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

Adding Vectors

Move, rotate, and resize two vectors in a plane. Find their resultant, both graphically and by direct computation. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 10: Energy, Work, and Simple Machines

Potential Energy on Shelves

Compare the potential energy of several objects when you place them on shelves of different heights. Learn that two objects at different heights can have the same potential energy, while two objects at the same height can have different potential energies. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Torque and Moment of Inertia

One of the simplest machines is a see-saw lever. Place up to eight objects on the lever at different locations and try to balance it. Calculate net torque and moment of inertia based on the positions of the objects and the mass of the bar. The mass of each object can be changed, and the fulcrum position can be shifted as well. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 11: Energy and Its Conservation

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Potential Energy on Shelves

Compare the potential energy of several objects when you place them on shelves of different heights. Learn that two objects at different heights can have the same potential energy, while two objects at the same height can have different potential energies. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 12: Thermal Energy

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Heat Transfer by Conduction

An insulated beaker of hot water is connected to a beaker of cold water with a conducting bar, and over time the temperatures of the beakers equalize as heat is transferred through the bar. Four materials (aluminum, copper, steel, and glass) are available for the bar. 5 Minute Preview

Calorimetry Lab

Investigate how calorimetry can be used to find relative specific heat values when different substances are mixed with water. Modify initial mass and temperature values to see effects on the system. One or any combination of the substances can be mixed with water. A dynamic graph (temperature vs. time) shows temperatures of the individual substances after mixing. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 13: States of Matter

Boyle's Law and Charles's Law

Investigate the properties of an ideal gas by performing experiments in which the temperature is held constant (Boyle's Law), and others in which the pressure remains fixed (Charles's Law). The pressure is controlled through the placement of masses on the lid of the container, and temperature is controlled with an adjustable heat source. Gay-Lussac's law relating pressure to temperature can also be explored by keeping the volume constant. 5 Minute Preview

Determining Density via Water Displacement

Drop objects in a beaker that is filled with water, and measure the water that flows over the edge. Using Archimedes' principle, determine the density of objects based on the amount of displaced water. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 14: Vibrations and Waves

Longitudinal Waves

Observe the propagation of longitudinal (compression) waves in a closed or open tube with evenly-spaced dividers. The strength and frequency of the waves can be manipulated, or waves can be observed as individual pulses. Compare the movement of dividers to graphs of displacement, velocity, acceleration and pressure. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 15: Sound

Sound Beats and Sine Waves

Listen to and see interference patterns produced by sound waves with similar frequencies. Test your ability to distinguish and match sounds as musicians do when they tune their instruments. Calculate the number of "sound beats" you will hear based on the frequency of each sound. [Note: Headphones are recommended for this Gizmo.] 5 Minute Preview

Doppler Shift

Observe sound waves emitted from a moving vehicle. Measure the frequency of sound waves in front of and behind the vehicle as it moves, illustrating the Doppler effect. The frequency of sound waves, speed of the source, and the speed of sound can all be manipulated. Motion of the vehicle can be linear, oscillating, or circular. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 16: Fundamentals of Light

Laser Reflection

Point a laser at a mirror and compare the angle of the incoming beam to the angle of reflection. A protractor can be used to measure the angles of incidence and reflection, and the angle of the mirror can be adjusted. A beam splitter can be used to split the beam. Both plane and irregular mirrors can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Basic Prism

Shine white light or a single-color beam through a prism. Explore how a prism refracts light and investigate the factors that affect the amount of refraction. The index of refraction of the prism, width of the prism, prism angle, light angle, and light wavelength can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

Observe light rays that pass through a convex or concave lens. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the lens and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Additive Colors

Control the intensity of red, green, and blue spotlights. Additive colors can be observed where the spotlights overlap. The RGB value of any point can be measured. Just about any color can be created by mixing varying amounts of red, green, and blue light. 5 Minute Preview

Subtractive Colors

Move spots of yellow, cyan, and magenta pigment on a white surface. As the colors overlap, other colors can be seen due to color subtraction. The color of most things you see--such as cars, leaves, paintings, houses, and clothes--are due to color subtraction. The intensity of the cyan, magenta, and yellow can be adjusted, and the RGB value at any location can be measured. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 17: Reflection and Mirrors

Laser Reflection

Point a laser at a mirror and compare the angle of the incoming beam to the angle of reflection. A protractor can be used to measure the angles of incidence and reflection, and the angle of the mirror can be adjusted. A beam splitter can be used to split the beam. Both plane and irregular mirrors can be used. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 19: Interference and Diffraction

Chapter 20: Static Electricity

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 21: Electric Fields

Chapter 22: Current Electricity

Chapter 23: Series and Parallel Circuits

Circuits

Build electrical circuits using batteries, light bulbs, resistors, fuses, wires, and a switch. An ammeter, a voltmeter and an ohmmeter are available for measuring current, voltage and resistance throughout the circuit. The voltage of the battery and the precision of the meters can be adjusted. Multiple circuits can be built for comparison. 5 Minute Preview

Chapter 24: Magnetic Fields

Chapter 26: Electromagnetism

Chapter 28: The Atom

Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics

Half-life

Investigate the decay of a radioactive substance. The half-life and the number of radioactive atoms can be adjusted, and theoretical or random decay can be observed. Data can be interpreted visually using a dynamic graph, a bar chart, and a table. Determine the half-lives of two sample isotopes as well as samples with randomly generated half-lives. 5 Minute Preview

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