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# Motion, Forces, and Energy (2005)

### 1: Motion and Momentum

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Force and Fan Carts

Explore the laws of motion using a simple fan cart. Use the buttons to select the speed of the fan and the surface, and press Play to begin. You can drag up to three objects onto the fan cart. The speed of the cart is displayed with a speedometer and recorded in a table and a graph. 5 Minute Preview

Free Fall Tower

Recreate Galileo's famous experiment by dropping objects off the Tower of Pisa. You can drop ping pong balls, golf balls, soccer balls or watermelons. Objects can be dropped in air or no air, with or without a parachute. The speed of each object is shown on a speedometer and a graph. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

Measuring Motion

Go on an African safari and observe a variety of animals walking and running across the savanna. Videotape the animals, and then play back the videotape to estimate animal speeds. Which animals run fastest? 5 Minute Preview

### 2: Force and Newton's Laws

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Force and Fan Carts

Explore the laws of motion using a simple fan cart. Use the buttons to select the speed of the fan and the surface, and press Play to begin. You can drag up to three objects onto the fan cart. The speed of the cart is displayed with a speedometer and recorded in a table and a graph. 5 Minute Preview

Weight and Mass

Use a balance to measure mass and a spring scale to measure the weight of objects. Compare the masses and weights of objects on Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and the Moon. 5 Minute Preview

### 3: Forces and Fluids

Archimedes' Principle

Place weights into a boat and see how far the boat sinks into a tank of liquid. The depth of the boat can be measured, as well as the amount of liquid displaced. The dimensions of the boat and the density of the liquid can be adjusted. See how much weight the boat can hold before it sinks to the bottom! 5 Minute Preview

Coastal Winds and Clouds - Metric

Observe daily weather conditions in a coastal region. Measure temperatures and wind speeds at any location and use this data to map convection currents that form during the day and night. Explain the origin of land breezes and sea breezes. 5 Minute Preview

Conduction and Convection

Two flasks hold colored water, one yellow and the other blue. Set the starting temperature of each flask, choose a type of material to connect the flasks, and see how quickly the flasks heat up or cool down. The flasks can be connected with a hollow pipe, allowing the water in the flasks to mix, or a solid chunk that transfers heat but prevents mixing. 5 Minute Preview

Density Laboratory

With a scale to measure mass, a graduated cylinder to measure volume, and a large beaker of liquid to observe flotation, the relationship between mass, volume, density, and flotation can be investigated. The density of the liquid in the beaker can be adjusted, and a variety of objects can be studied during the investigation. 5 Minute Preview

Determining Density via Water Displacement

Drop objects in a beaker that is filled with water, and measure the water that flows over the edge. Using Archimedes' principle, determine the density of objects based on the amount of displaced water. 5 Minute Preview

### 4: Work and Simple Machines

Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)

Lift food using ants with the help of a slanted stick. The steepness of the stick, the number of ants, and the size of the item being lifted can be varied. Observe the effect of friction on sliding objects. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

Investigate how an inclined plane redirects and reduces the force pulling a brick downward, with or without friction. A toy car can apply a variable upward force on the brick, and the mechanical advantage and efficiency of the plane can be determined. A graph of force versus distance illustrates the concept of work. 5 Minute Preview

Levers

Use a lever to lift a pig, turkey, or sheep. A strongman provides up to 1000 newtons of effort. The fulcrum, strongman, and animals can be moved to any position to create first-, second-, or third-class levers. 5 Minute Preview

Pulley Lab

Use a pulley system to lift a heavy weight to a certain height. Measure the force required to lift the weight using up to three fixed and three movable pulleys. The weight to be lifted and the efficiency of the pulley system can be adjusted, and the height of the weight and the total input distance are reported. 5 Minute Preview

Pulleys

Lift a variety of heavy objects (armchair, safe, piano) using pulleys and a rope. Systems of one, two, four, or six pulleys can be used. Up to six people can be used to pull on the rope, which adds force (effort). 5 Minute Preview

Wheel and Axle

Use a wheel and axle to move a heavy load. Find out how many athletes it takes to move the load under different conditions. The radii of the wheel and the axle can be adjusted to help study mechanical advantage. 5 Minute Preview

### 5: Energy and Energy Resources

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Energy Conversions

Where does energy come from? How does energy get from one place to another? Find out how electrical current is generated and how living things get energy to move and grow. Trace the path of energy and see how energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Potential Energy on Shelves

Compare the potential energy of several objects when you place them on shelves of different heights. Learn that two objects at different heights can have the same potential energy, while two objects at the same height can have different potential energies. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

### 6: Thermal Energy

Conduction and Convection

Two flasks hold colored water, one yellow and the other blue. Set the starting temperature of each flask, choose a type of material to connect the flasks, and see how quickly the flasks heat up or cool down. The flasks can be connected with a hollow pipe, allowing the water in the flasks to mix, or a solid chunk that transfers heat but prevents mixing. 5 Minute Preview

Heat Absorption

Shine a powerful flashlight on a variety of materials, and measure how quickly each material heats up. See how the light angle, light color, type of material, and material color affect heating. A glass cover can be added to simulate a greenhouse. 5 Minute Preview

Heat Transfer by Conduction

An insulated beaker of hot water is connected to a beaker of cold water with a conducting bar, and over time the temperatures of the beakers equalize as heat is transferred through the bar. Four materials (aluminum, copper, steel, and glass) are available for the bar. 5 Minute Preview

Radiation

Use a powerful flashlight to pop a kernel of popcorn. A lens focuses light on the kernel. The temperature of the filament and the distance between the flashlight and lens can be changed. Several obstacles can be placed between the flashlight and the popcorn. 5 Minute Preview

Temperature and Particle Motion

Observe the movement of particles of an ideal gas at a variety of temperatures. A histogram showing the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution is shown, and the most probable velocity, mean velocity, and root mean square velocity can be calculated. Molecules of different gases can be compared. 5 Minute Preview

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