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# Utah - Science: Physics

## Core Curriculum | Adopted: 2003

### 1: : Students will understand how to measure, calculate, and describe the motion of an object in terms of position, time, velocity, and acceleration.

1.1: : Describe the motion of an object in terms of position, time, and velocity.

1.1.a: : Calculate the average velocity of a moving object using data obtained from measurements of position of the object at two or more times.

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

1.1.d: : Determine and compare the average and instantaneous velocity of an object from data showing its position at given times.

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

1.1.e: : Collect, graph, and interpret data for position vs. time to describe the motion of an object and compare this motion to the motion of another object.

Distance-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner complete a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the speed of the runner. What will the runner do if the slope of the line is zero? What if the slope is negative? Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. 5 Minute Preview

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Investigate the motion of an object as it falls to the ground. A variety of objects can be compared, and their motion can be observed in a vacuum, in normal air, and in denser air. The position, velocity, and acceleration are measured over time, and the forces on the object can be displayed. Using the manual settings, the mass, radius, height, and initial velocity of the object can be adjusted, as can the air density and wind. 5 Minute Preview

1.2: : Analyze the motion of an object in terms of velocity, time, and acceleration.

1.2.a: : Determine the average acceleration of an object from data showing velocity at given times.

Feed the Monkey (Projectile Motion)

Fire a banana cannon at a monkey in a tree. The monkey drops from the tree at the moment the banana is fired from the cannon. Determine where to aim the cannon so the monkey catches the banana. The position of the cannon, launch angle and initial velocity of the banana can be varied. Students can observe the velocity vectors and the paths of the monkey and banana. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

1.2.c: : Collect, graph, and interpret data for velocity vs. time to describe the motion of an object.

Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs - Metric

Create a graph of a runner's position versus time and watch the runner run a 40-meter dash based on the graph you made. Notice the connection between the slope of the line and the velocity of the runner. Add a second runner (a second graph) and connect real-world meaning to the intersection of two graphs. Also experiment with a graph of velocity versus time for the runners, and also distance traveled versus time. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

1.2.d: : Describe the acceleration of an object moving in a circular path at constant speed (i.e., constant speed, but changing direction).

Uniform Circular Motion

Measure the position, velocity, and acceleration (both components and magnitude) of an object undergoing circular motion. The radius and velocity of the object can be controlled, along with the mass of the object. The forces acting on the object also can be recorded. 5 Minute Preview

1.2.e: : Analyze the velocity and acceleration of an object over time.

Feed the Monkey (Projectile Motion)

Fire a banana cannon at a monkey in a tree. The monkey drops from the tree at the moment the banana is fired from the cannon. Determine where to aim the cannon so the monkey catches the banana. The position of the cannon, launch angle and initial velocity of the banana can be varied. Students can observe the velocity vectors and the paths of the monkey and banana. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

Golf Range

Try to get a hole in one by adjusting the velocity and launch angle of a golf ball. Explore the physics of projectile motion in a frictional or ideal setting. Horizontal and vertical velocity vectors can be displayed, as well as the path of the ball. The height of the golfer and the force of gravity are also adjustable. 5 Minute Preview

1.4: : Use Newton's first law to explain the motion of an object.

1.4.a: : Describe the motion of a moving object on which balanced forces are acting.

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

1.4.b: : Describe the motion of a stationary object on which balanced forces are acting.

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

### 2: : Students will understand the relation between force, mass, and acceleration.

2.1: : Analyze forces acting on an object.

2.1.d: : Calculate the net force acting on an object.

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

2.2: : Using Newton?s second law, relate the force, mass, and acceleration of an object.

2.2.a: : Determine the relationship between the net force on an object and the object?s acceleration.

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

2.2.b: : Relate the effect of an object?s mass to its acceleration when an unbalanced force is applied.

Atwood Machine

Measure the height and velocity of two objects connected by a massless rope over a pulley. Observe the forces acting on each mass throughout the simulation. Calculate the acceleration of the objects, and relate these calculations to Newton's Laws of Motion. The mass of each object can be manipulated, as well as the mass and radius of the pulley. 5 Minute Preview

Fan Cart Physics

Gain an understanding of Newton's Laws by experimenting with a cart (on which up to three fans are placed) on a linear track. The cart has a mass, as does each fan. The fans exert a constant force when switched on, and the direction of the fans can be altered as the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart are measured. 5 Minute Preview

Free-Fall Laboratory

2.2.c: : Determine the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration from experimental data and compare the results to Newton?s second law.

Atwood Machine

Fan Cart Physics

Free-Fall Laboratory

2.2.d: : Predict the combined effect of multiple forces (e.g., friction, gravity, and normal forces) on an object?s motion.

Atwood Machine

Fan Cart Physics

2.3: : Explain that forces act in pairs as described by Newton?s third law.

2.3.a: : Identify pairs of forces (e.g., action-reaction, equal and opposite) acting between two objects (e.g., two electric charges, a book and the table it rests upon, a person and a rope being pulled).

Fan Cart Physics

### 3: : Students will understand the factors determining the strength of gravitational and electric forces.

3.1: : Relate the strength of the gravitational force to the distance between two objects and the mass of the objects (i.e., Newton?s law of universal gravitation).

3.1.a: : Investigate how mass affects the gravitational force (e.g., spring scale, balance, or other method of finding a relationship between mass and the gravitational force).

Gravitational Force

Drag two objects around and observe the gravitational force between them as their positions change. The mass of each object can be adjusted, and the gravitational force is displayed both as vectors and numerically. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

3.1.c: : Describe how distance between objects affects the gravitational force (e.g., effect of gravitational forces of the moon and sun on objects on Earth).

Gravitational Force

Drag two objects around and observe the gravitational force between them as their positions change. The mass of each object can be adjusted, and the gravitational force is displayed both as vectors and numerically. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

3.1.d: : Explain how evidence and inference are used to describe fundamental forces in nature, such as the gravitational force.

Free-Fall Laboratory

Gravitational Force

Drag two objects around and observe the gravitational force between them as their positions change. The mass of each object can be adjusted, and the gravitational force is displayed both as vectors and numerically. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

Pith balls with positive, negative, or no electrical charge are suspended from strings. The charge and mass of the pith balls can be adjusted, along with the length of the string, which will cause the pith balls to change position. Distances can be measured as variables are adjusted, and the forces (Coulomb and gravitational) acting on the balls can be displayed. 5 Minute Preview

3.2: : Describe the factors that affect the electric force (i.e., Coulomb?s law).

3.2.b: : Describe how the amount of charge affects the electric force.

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

3.2.c: : Investigate the relationship of distance between charged objects and the strength of the electric force.

Coulomb Force (Static)

Drag two charged particles around and observe the Coulomb force between them as their positions change. The charge of each object can be adjusted, and the force is displayed both numerically and with vectors as the distance between the objects is altered. 5 Minute Preview

Pith Ball Lab

### 4: : Students will understand transfer and conservation of energy.

4.1: : Determine kinetic and potential energy in a system.

4.1.a: : Identify various types of potential energy (i.e., gravitational, elastic, chemical, electrostatic, nuclear).

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

Potential Energy on Shelves

Compare the potential energy of several objects when you place them on shelves of different heights. Learn that two objects at different heights can have the same potential energy, while two objects at the same height can have different potential energies. 5 Minute Preview

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

4.1.b: : Calculate the kinetic energy of an object given the velocity and mass of the object.

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

4.2: : Describe conservation of energy in terms of systems.

4.2.a: : Describe a closed system in terms of its total energy.

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Investigate the energy and motion of a block sliding down an inclined plane, with or without friction. The ramp angle can be varied and a variety of materials for the block and ramp can be used. Potential and kinetic energy are reported as the block slides down the ramp. Two experiments can be run simultaneously to compare results as factors are varied. 5 Minute Preview

4.2.b: : Relate the transformations between kinetic and potential energy in a system (e.g., moving magnet induces electricity in a coil of wire, roller coaster, internal combustion engine).

Air Track

Adjust the mass and velocity of two gliders on a frictionless air track. Measure the velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy of each glider as they approach each other and collide. Collisions can be elastic or inelastic. 5 Minute Preview

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Energy of a Pendulum

Perform experiments with a pendulum to gain an understanding of energy conservation in simple harmonic motion. The mass, length, and gravitational acceleration of the pendulum can be adjusted, as well as the initial angle. The potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy of the oscillating pendulum can be displayed on a table, bar chart or graph. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

Roller Coaster Physics

Adjust the hills on a toy-car roller coaster and watch what happens as the car careens toward an egg (that can be broken) at the end of the track. The heights of three hills can be manipulated, along with the mass of the car and the friction of the track. A graph of various variables of motion can be viewed as the car travels, including position, speed, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and total energy. 5 Minute Preview

4.2.c: : Gather data and calculate the gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy of an object (e.g., pendulum, water flowing downhill, ball dropped from a height) and relate this to the conservation of energy of a system.

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

4.3: : Describe common energy transformations and the effect on availability of energy.

4.3.b: : Investigate the transfer of heat energy by conduction, convection, and radiation.

Herschel Experiment - Metric

Shine sunlight through a prism and use a thermometer to measure the temperature in different regions of the spectrum. The thermometer can be dragged through the visible spectrum and beyond. This recreates the experiment of William Herschel that led to the discovery of infrared radiation in 1800. 5 Minute Preview

4.3.d: : Research and report on the transformation of energy in electrical generation plants (e.g., chemical to heat to electricity, nuclear to heat to mechanical to electrical, gravitational to kinetic to mechanical to electrical), and include energy losses during each transformation.

Energy Conversion in a System

A falling cylinder is attached to a rotating propeller that stirs and heats the water in a beaker. The mass and height of the cylinder, as well as the quantity and initial temperature of water can be adjusted. The temperature of the water is measured as energy is converted from one form to another. 5 Minute Preview

Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

### 5: : Students will understand the properties and applications of waves.

5.1: : Demonstrate an understanding of mechanical waves in terms of general wave properties.

5.1.b: : Investigate and compare reflection, refraction, and diffraction of waves.

Basic Prism

Shine white light or a single-color beam through a prism. Explore how a prism refracts light and investigate the factors that affect the amount of refraction. The index of refraction of the prism, width of the prism, prism angle, light angle, and light wavelength can be adjusted. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Lenses)

Observe light rays that pass through a convex or concave lens. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the lens and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

Observe light rays that reflect from a convex or concave mirror. Manipulate the position of an object and the focal length of the mirror and measure the distance and size of the resulting image. 5 Minute Preview

Refraction

Determine the angle of refraction for a light beam moving from one medium to another. The angle of incidence and each index of refraction can be varied. Using the tools provided, the angle of refraction can be measured, and the wavelength and frequency of the waves in each substance can be compared as well. 5 Minute Preview

5.1.c: : Provide examples of waves commonly observed in nature and/or used in technological applications.

Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station

Using an earthquake recording station, learn how to determine the distance between the station and an earthquake based on the time difference between the arrival of the primary and secondary seismic waves. Use this data to find the epicenter in the Earthquakes 2 - Location of Epicenter Gizmo. 5 Minute Preview

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

5.1.d: : Identify the relationship between the speed, wavelength, and frequency of a wave.

Ripple Tank

Study wave motion, diffraction, interference, and refraction in a simulated ripple tank. A wide variety of scenarios can be chosen, including barriers with one or two gaps, multiple wave sources, reflecting barriers, or submerged rocks. The wavelength and strength of waves can be adjusted, as well as the amount of damping in the tank. 5 Minute Preview

5.1.e: : Explain the observed change in frequency of a mechanical wave coming from a moving object as it approaches and moves away (i.e., Doppler effect).

Doppler Shift

Observe sound waves emitted from a moving vehicle. Measure the frequency of sound waves in front of and behind the vehicle as it moves, illustrating the Doppler effect. The frequency of sound waves, speed of the source, and the speed of sound can all be manipulated. Motion of the vehicle can be linear, oscillating, or circular. 5 Minute Preview

Doppler Shift Advanced

Derive an equation to calculate the frequency of an oncoming sound source and a receding sound source. Also, calculate the Doppler shift that results from a moving observer and a stationary sound source. The source velocity, sound velocity, observer velocity, and sound frequency can all be manipulated. 5 Minute Preview

Longitudinal Waves

Observe the propagation of longitudinal (compression) waves in a closed or open tube with evenly-spaced dividers. The strength and frequency of the waves can be manipulated, or waves can be observed as individual pulses. Compare the movement of dividers to graphs of displacement, velocity, acceleration and pressure. 5 Minute Preview

5.2: : Describe the nature of electromagnetic radiation and visible light.

5.2.d: : Explain the observed change in frequency of an electromagnetic wave coming from a moving object as it approaches and moves away (i.e., Doppler effect, red/blue shift).

Doppler Shift

Observe sound waves emitted from a moving vehicle. Measure the frequency of sound waves in front of and behind the vehicle as it moves, illustrating the Doppler effect. The frequency of sound waves, speed of the source, and the speed of sound can all be manipulated. Motion of the vehicle can be linear, oscillating, or circular. 5 Minute Preview

Doppler Shift Advanced

Derive an equation to calculate the frequency of an oncoming sound source and a receding sound source. Also, calculate the Doppler shift that results from a moving observer and a stationary sound source. The source velocity, sound velocity, observer velocity, and sound frequency can all be manipulated. 5 Minute Preview

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

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