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# Virginia - Mathematics: Algebra 2 with Trigonometry

## Standards of Learning | Adopted: 2009

### AII/T.1: : The student, given rational, radical, or polynomial expressions, will

AII/T.10: : The student will identify, create, and solve real-world problems involving inverse variation, joint variation, and a combination of direct and inverse variations.

Direct and Inverse Variation

Adjust the constant of variation and explore how the graph of the direct or inverse variation function changes in response. Compare direct variation functions to inverse variation functions. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.12: : The student will compute and distinguish between permutations and combinations and use technology for applications.

Permutations and Combinations

Experiment with permutations and combinations of a number of letters represented by letter tiles selected at random from a box. Count the permutations and combinations using a dynamic tree diagram, a dynamic list of permutations, and a dynamic computation by the counting principle. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.13: : The student, given a point other than the origin on the terminal side of an angle, will use the definitions of the six trigonometric functions to find the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant of the angle in standard position. Trigonometric functions defined on the unit circle will be related to trigonometric functions defined in right triangles.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.14: : The student, given the value of one trigonometric function, will find the values of the other trigonometric functions, using the definitions and properties of the trigonometric functions.

Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios

Reshape and resize a right triangle and examine how the sine of angle A, the cosine of angle A, and the tangent of angle A change. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.15: : The student will find, without the aid of a calculator, the values of the trigonometric functions of the special angles and their related angles as found in the unit circle. This will include converting angle measures from radians to degrees and vice versa.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.17: : The student will verify basic trigonometric identities and make substitutions, using the basic identities.

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

Choose the correct steps to simplify a trigonometric function. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

Choose the correct steps to evaluate a trigonometric expression using sum and difference identities. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.1.b: : add, subtract, multiply, divide, and simplify radical expressions containing rational numbers and variables, and expressions containing rational exponents;

Operations with Radical Expressions

Identify the correct steps to complete operations with a radical expression. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Simplifying Radical Expressions

Simplify a radical expression. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose any incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.1.d: : factor polynomials completely.

Factoring Special Products

Choose the correct steps to factor a polynomial involving perfect-square binomials, differences of squares, or constant factors. Use the feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Modeling the Factorization of *ax*^{2}+*bx*+*c*

Factor a polynomial with a leading coefficient greater than 1 using an area model. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose any mistakes. 5 Minute Preview

Modeling the Factorization of *x*^{2}+*bx*+*c*

Factor a polynomial with a leading coefficient equal to 1 using an area model. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose any mistakes. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.3: : The student will perform operations on complex numbers, express the results in simplest form using patterns of the powers of i, and identify field properties that are valid for the complex numbers.

AII/T.3: : The student will perform operations on complex numbers, express the results in simplest form using patterns of the powers of i, and identify field properties that are valid for the complex numbers.

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.4: : Graphing calculators will be used for solving and for confirming the algebraic solutions. The student will solve, algebraically and graphically,

AII/T.4.a: : absolute value equations and inequalities;

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

Solve an inequality involving absolute values using a graph of the absolute-value function. Vary the terms of the absolute-value function and vary the value that you are comparing it to. Then explore how the graph and solution set change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.4.b: : quadratic equations over the set of complex numbers;

Points in the Complex Plane

Identify the imaginary and real coordinates of a point in the complex plane. Drag the point in the plane and investigate how the coordinates change in response. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.4.d: : equations containing radical expressions.

Radical Functions

Compare the graph of a radical function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation. Explore how the graph is translated and stretched by the changes to the equation. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.6: : The student will recognize the general shape of function (absolute value, square root, cube root, rational, polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic) families and will convert between graphic and symbolic forms of functions. A transformational approach to graphing will be employed. Graphing calculators will be used as a tool to investigate the shapes and behaviors of these functions.

AII/T.6: : The student will recognize the general shape of function (absolute value, square root, cube root, rational, polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic) families and will convert between graphic and symbolic forms of functions. A transformational approach to graphing will be employed. Graphing calculators will be used as a tool to investigate the shapes and behaviors of these functions.

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of an exponential function. Vary the coefficient and base of the function and investigate the changes to the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

Function Machines 2 (Functions, Tables, and Graphs)

Drop a number into a function machine, and see what number comes out! You can use one of the six pre-set function machines, or program your own function rule into one of the blank machines. Stack up to three function machines together. Input and output can be recorded in a table and on a graph. 5 Minute Preview

Function Machines 3 (Functions and Problem Solving)

Drop a number into a function machine, and see what number comes out! You can use one of the six pre-set function machines, or program your own function rule into one of the blank machines. Stack up to three function machines together. Input and output can be recorded in a table and on a graph. 5 Minute Preview

General Form of a Rational Function

Compare the equation of a rational function to its graph. Multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by linear factors and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Graphs of Polynomial Functions

Study the graphs of polynomials up to the fourth degree. Vary the coefficients of the equation and investigate how the graph changes in response. Explore things like intercepts, end behavior, and even near-zero behavior. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of the exponential function. Vary the initial amount and base of the function. Investigate the changes to the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Functions

Determine if a relation is a function using the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or the graph of the relation. Drag arrows from the domain to the range, type in ordered pairs, or drag points to the graph to add inputs and outputs to the relation. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Factored Form

Investigate the factors of a quadratic through its graph and through its equation. Vary the roots of the quadratic and examine how the graph and the equation change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Polynomial Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in polynomial form. Vary the coefficients of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Quadratics in Vertex Form

Compare the graph of a quadratic to its equation in vertex form. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Radical Functions

Compare the graph of a radical function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation. Explore how the graph is translated and stretched by the changes to the equation. 5 Minute Preview

Rational Functions

Compare the graph of a rational function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph is translated and stretched as a result. Examine the domain on a number line and compare it to the graph of the equation. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.7: : Graphing calculators will be used as a tool to assist in investigation of functions. The student will investigate and analyze functions algebraically and graphically. Key concepts include

AII/T.7.a: : domain and range, including limited and discontinuous domains and ranges;

Function Machines 3 (Functions and Problem Solving)

Drop a number into a function machine, and see what number comes out! You can use one of the six pre-set function machines, or program your own function rule into one of the blank machines. Stack up to three function machines together. Input and output can be recorded in a table and on a graph. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Functions

Determine if a relation is a function using the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or the graph of the relation. Drag arrows from the domain to the range, type in ordered pairs, or drag points to the graph to add inputs and outputs to the relation. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

Radical Functions

Compare the graph of a radical function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation. Explore how the graph is translated and stretched by the changes to the equation. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.7.b: : zeros;

Polynomials and Linear Factors

Create a polynomial as a product of linear factors. Vary the values in the linear factors to see how their connection to the roots of the function. 5 Minute Preview

Roots of a Quadratic

Find the root of a quadratic using its graph or the quadratic formula. Explore the graph of the roots and the point of symmetry in the complex plane. Compare the axis of symmetry and graph of the quadratic in the real plane. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.7.c: : x- and y-intercepts;

Cat and Mouse (Modeling with Linear Systems)

Experiment with a system of two lines representing a cat-and-mouse chase. Adjust the speeds of the cat and mouse and the head start of the mouse, and immediately see the effects on the graph and on the chase. Connect real-world meaning to slope, y-intercept, and the intersection of lines. 5 Minute Preview

Linear Functions

Determine if a relation is a function from the mapping diagram, ordered pairs, or graph. Use the graph to determine if it is linear. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

Points, Lines, and Equations

Compare the graph of a linear function to its rule and to a table of its values. Change the function by dragging two points on the line. Examine how the rule and table change. 5 Minute Preview

Roots of a Quadratic

Find the root of a quadratic using its graph or the quadratic formula. Explore the graph of the roots and the point of symmetry in the complex plane. Compare the axis of symmetry and graph of the quadratic in the real plane. 5 Minute Preview

Slope-Intercept Form of a Line

Compare the slope-intercept form of a linear equation to its graph. Vary the coefficients and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.7.e: : asymptotes;

Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of an exponential function. Vary the coefficient and base of the function and investigate the changes to the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

General Form of a Rational Function

Compare the equation of a rational function to its graph. Multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by linear factors and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of the exponential function. Vary the initial amount and base of the function. Investigate the changes to the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

Compare the equation of a logarithmic function to its graph. Change the base of the logarithmic function and examine how the graph changes in response. Use the line *y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

Rational Functions

Compare the graph of a rational function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph is translated and stretched as a result. Examine the domain on a number line and compare it to the graph of the equation. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.7.f: : end behavior;

Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of an exponential function. Vary the coefficient and base of the function and investigate the changes to the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

General Form of a Rational Function

Compare the equation of a rational function to its graph. Multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by linear factors and explore how the graph changes in response. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Exponential Functions

Explore the graph of the exponential function. Vary the initial amount and base of the function. Investigate the changes to the graph. 5 Minute Preview

Logarithmic Functions

*y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

Rational Functions

Compare the graph of a rational function to its equation. Vary the terms of the equation and explore how the graph is translated and stretched as a result. Examine the domain on a number line and compare it to the graph of the equation. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.7.g: : inverse of a function; and

Function Machines 3 (Functions and Problem Solving)

Logarithmic Functions

*y* = *x* to compare the associated exponential function.
5 Minute Preview

AII/T.7.h: : composition of multiple functions.

Function Machines 1 (Functions and Tables)

### AII/T.8: : The student will investigate and describe the relationships among solutions of an equation, zeros of a function, x-intercepts of a graph, and factors of a polynomial expression.

AII/T.8: : The student will investigate and describe the relationships among solutions of an equation, zeros of a function, x-intercepts of a graph, and factors of a polynomial expression.

Modeling the Factorization of *x*^{2}+*bx*+*c*

Factor a polynomial with a leading coefficient equal to 1 using an area model. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose any mistakes. 5 Minute Preview

Points, Lines, and Equations

Compare the graph of a linear function to its rule and to a table of its values. Change the function by dragging two points on the line. Examine how the rule and table change. 5 Minute Preview

Polynomials and Linear Factors

Create a polynomial as a product of linear factors. Vary the values in the linear factors to see how their connection to the roots of the function. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.9: : The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit, make predictions, and solve real-world problems, using mathematical models. Mathematical models will include polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic functions.

AII/T.9: : The student will collect and analyze data, determine the equation of the curve of best fit, make predictions, and solve real-world problems, using mathematical models. Mathematical models will include polynomial, exponential, and logarithmic functions.

Compound Interest

Explore compound interest in-depth, from compounded annually to compounded continuously. In addition, compare the END POINTS graph, with dots that fit an exponential curve, to the ALL TIME graph, which has a more step-like appearance. 5 Minute Preview

Introduction to Exponential Functions

Zap It! Game

Adjust the values in a quadratic function, in vertex form or in polynomial form, to "zap" as many data points as possible. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.10: : The student will identify, create, and solve real-world problems involving inverse variation, joint variation, and a combination of direct and inverse variations.

AII/T.10: : The student will identify, create, and solve real-world problems involving inverse variation, joint variation, and a combination of direct and inverse variations.

Direct and Inverse Variation

Adjust the constant of variation and explore how the graph of the direct or inverse variation function changes in response. Compare direct variation functions to inverse variation functions. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.12: : The student will compute and distinguish between permutations and combinations and use technology for applications.

AII/T.12: : The student will compute and distinguish between permutations and combinations and use technology for applications.

Permutations and Combinations

Experiment with permutations and combinations of a number of letters represented by letter tiles selected at random from a box. Count the permutations and combinations using a dynamic tree diagram, a dynamic list of permutations, and a dynamic computation by the counting principle. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.13: : The student, given a point other than the origin on the terminal side of an angle, will use the definitions of the six trigonometric functions to find the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant of the angle in standard position. Trigonometric functions defined on the unit circle will be related to trigonometric functions defined in right triangles.

AII/T.13: : The student, given a point other than the origin on the terminal side of an angle, will use the definitions of the six trigonometric functions to find the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant of the angle in standard position. Trigonometric functions defined on the unit circle will be related to trigonometric functions defined in right triangles.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.14: : The student, given the value of one trigonometric function, will find the values of the other trigonometric functions, using the definitions and properties of the trigonometric functions.

AII/T.14: : The student, given the value of one trigonometric function, will find the values of the other trigonometric functions, using the definitions and properties of the trigonometric functions.

Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios

Reshape and resize a right triangle and examine how the sine of angle A, the cosine of angle A, and the tangent of angle A change. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.15: : The student will find, without the aid of a calculator, the values of the trigonometric functions of the special angles and their related angles as found in the unit circle. This will include converting angle measures from radians to degrees and vice versa.

AII/T.15: : The student will find, without the aid of a calculator, the values of the trigonometric functions of the special angles and their related angles as found in the unit circle. This will include converting angle measures from radians to degrees and vice versa.

Cosine Function

Sine Function

Tangent Function

### AII/T.17: : The student will verify basic trigonometric identities and make substitutions, using the basic identities.

AII/T.17: : The student will verify basic trigonometric identities and make substitutions, using the basic identities.

Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

Choose the correct steps to simplify a trigonometric function. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

Sum and Difference Identities for Sine and Cosine

Choose the correct steps to evaluate a trigonometric expression using sum and difference identities. Use step-by-step feedback to diagnose incorrect steps. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.18: : The student, given one of the six trigonometric functions in standard form, will

AII/T.18.b: : determine the amplitude, period, phase shift, vertical shift, and asymptotes;

Cosine Function

Sine Function

Tangent Function

Translating and Scaling Functions

Vary the coefficients in the equation of a function and examine how the graph of the function is translated or scaled. Select different functions to translate and scale, and determine what they have in common. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.18.c: : sketch the graph of the function by using transformations for at least a two-period interval; and

Translating and Scaling Functions

Vary the coefficients in the equation of a function and examine how the graph of the function is translated or scaled. Select different functions to translate and scale, and determine what they have in common. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

AII/T.18.d: : investigate the effect of changing the parameters in a trigonometric function on the graph of the function.

Translating and Scaling Functions

Vary the coefficients in the equation of a function and examine how the graph of the function is translated or scaled. Select different functions to translate and scale, and determine what they have in common. 5 Minute Preview

Translating and Scaling Sine and Cosine Functions

Experiment with the graph of a sine or cosine function. Explore how changing the values in the equation can translate or scale the graph of the function. 5 Minute Preview

### AII/T.21: : The student will identify, create, and solve real-world problems involving triangles. Techniques will include using the trigonometric functions, the Pythagorean Theorem, the Law of Sines, and the Law of Cosines.

AII/T.21: : The student will identify, create, and solve real-world problems involving triangles. Techniques will include using the trigonometric functions, the Pythagorean Theorem, the Law of Sines, and the Law of Cosines.

Circles

Compare the graph of a circle with its equation. Vary the terms in the equation and explore how the circle is translated and scaled in response. 5 Minute Preview

Distance Formula

Explore the distance formula as an application of the Pythagorean theorem. Learn to see any two points as the endpoints of the hypotenuse of a right triangle. Drag those points and examine changes to the triangle and the distance calculation. 5 Minute Preview

Estimating Population Size

Adjust the number of fish in a lake to be tagged and the number of fish to be recaptured. Use the number of tagged fish in the catch to estimate the number of fish in the lake. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem using a dynamic right triangle. Examine a visual, geometric application of the Pythagorean Theorem, using the areas of squares on the sides of the triangle. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

Build right triangles in an interactive geoboard and build squares on the sides of the triangles to discover the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 Minute Preview

Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios

Reshape and resize a right triangle and examine how the sine of angle A, the cosine of angle A, and the tangent of angle A change. 5 Minute Preview

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

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