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# Louisiana - Mathematics: Geometry

## Student Standards | Adopted: 2016

### GM: G: : Geometry

GM: G-CO: : Congruence

GM: G-CO.A: : Experiment with transformations in the plane.

GM: G-CO.A.1: : Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.

Circles

Compare the graph of a circle with its equation. Vary the terms in the equation and explore how the circle is translated and scaled in response. 5 Minute Preview

Constructing Congruent Segments and Angles

Construct congruent segments and angles using a straightedge and compass. Use step-by-step explanations and feedback to develop understanding of the construction. 5 Minute Preview

Constructing Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

Construct parallel and perpendicular lines using a straightedge and compass. Use step-by-step explanations and feedback to develop understanding of the construction. 5 Minute Preview

Inscribed Angles

Resize angles inscribed in a circle. Investigate the relationship between inscribed angles and the arcs they intercept. 5 Minute Preview

Parallel, Intersecting, and Skew Lines

Explore the properties of intersecting, parallel, and skew lines as well as lines in the plane. Rotate the plane and lines in three-dimensional space to ensure a full understanding of these objects. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-CO.A.2: : Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies, tracing paper, or geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Reflections

Reshape and resize a figure and examine how its reflection changes in response. Move the line of reflection and explore how the reflection is translated. 5 Minute Preview

Rotations, Reflections, and Translations

Rotate, reflect, and translate a figure in the plane. Compare the translated figure to the original figure. 5 Minute Preview

Translations

Translate a figure horizontally and vertically in the plane and examine the matrix representation of the translation. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-CO.A.3: : Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself.

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Reflections

Reshape and resize a figure and examine how its reflection changes in response. Move the line of reflection and explore how the reflection is translated. 5 Minute Preview

Rotations, Reflections, and Translations

Rotate, reflect, and translate a figure in the plane. Compare the translated figure to the original figure. 5 Minute Preview

Similar Figures

Vary the scale factor and rotation of an image and compare it to the preimage. Determine how the angle measures and side lengths of the two figures are related. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-CO.A.4: : Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments.

Circles

Compare the graph of a circle with its equation. Vary the terms in the equation and explore how the circle is translated and scaled in response. 5 Minute Preview

Dilations

Dilate a figure and investigate its resized image. See how scaling a figure affects the coordinates of its vertices, both in

Reflections

Reshape and resize a figure and examine how its reflection changes in response. Move the line of reflection and explore how the reflection is translated. 5 Minute Preview

Rotations, Reflections, and Translations

Rotate, reflect, and translate a figure in the plane. Compare the translated figure to the original figure. 5 Minute Preview

Similar Figures

Vary the scale factor and rotation of an image and compare it to the preimage. Determine how the angle measures and side lengths of the two figures are related. 5 Minute Preview

Translations

Translate a figure horizontally and vertically in the plane and examine the matrix representation of the translation. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-CO.A.5: : Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another.

Dilations

Reflections

Rotations, Reflections, and Translations

Similar Figures

Vary the scale factor and rotation of an image and compare it to the preimage. Determine how the angle measures and side lengths of the two figures are related. 5 Minute Preview

Translations

Translate a figure horizontally and vertically in the plane and examine the matrix representation of the translation. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-CO.B: : Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions.

GM: G-CO.B.6: : Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.

Absolute Value with Linear Functions

Compare the graph of a linear function, the graph of an absolute-value function, and the graphs of their translations. Vary the coefficients and constants in the functions and investigate how the graphs change in response. 5 Minute Preview

Circles

Compare the graph of a circle with its equation. Vary the terms in the equation and explore how the circle is translated and scaled in response. 5 Minute Preview

Dilations

Holiday Snowflake Designer

Fold paper and cut in a certain way to make symmetrical snowflakes with six sides (similar to what can be found in nature) or with eight sides (an easier folding method). This simulation allows you to cut virtual paper on the computer screen with round dot or square dot "scissors" of various sizes before using physical paper. 5 Minute Preview

Proving Triangles Congruent

Apply constraints to two triangles. Then drag the vertices of the triangles around and determine which constraints guarantee congruence. 5 Minute Preview

Reflections

Rotations, Reflections, and Translations

Similar Figures

Translations

GM: G-CO.B.8: : Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions.

Proving Triangles Congruent

Apply constraints to two triangles. Then drag the vertices of the triangles around and determine which constraints guarantee congruence. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-CO.C: : Prove and apply geometric theorems.

GM: G-CO.C.9: : Prove and apply theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment’s endpoints.

Congruence in Right Triangles

Apply constraints to two right triangles. Then drag their vertices around under those conditions. Determine under what conditions the triangles are guaranteed to be congruent. 5 Minute Preview

Investigating Angle Theorems

Explore the properties of complementary, supplementary, vertical, and adjacent angles using a dynamic figure. 5 Minute Preview

Proving Triangles Congruent

Apply constraints to two triangles. Then drag the vertices of the triangles around and determine which constraints guarantee congruence. 5 Minute Preview

Similar Figures

GM: G-CO.C.10: : Prove and apply theorems about triangles. Theorems include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180°; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point.

Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles

Investigate the graph of a triangle under constraints. Determine which constraints guarantee isosceles or equilateral triangles. 5 Minute Preview

Proving Triangles Congruent

Pythagorean Theorem

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem using a dynamic right triangle. Examine a visual, geometric application of the Pythagorean Theorem, using the areas of squares on the sides of the triangle. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

Build right triangles in an interactive geoboard and build squares on the sides of the triangles to discover the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 Minute Preview

Triangle Angle Sum

Measure the interior angles of a triangle and find the sum. Examine whether that sum is the same for all triangles. Also, discover how the measure of an exterior angle relates to the interior angle measures. 5 Minute Preview

Triangle Inequalities

Discover the inequalities related to the side lengths and angle measures of a triangle. Reshape and resize the triangle to confirm that these properties are true for all triangles. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-CO.C.11: : Prove and apply theorems about parallelograms. Theorems include: opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals.

Parallelogram Conditions

Apply constraints to a dynamic quadrilateral. Then drag its vertices around. Determine which constraints guarantee that the quadrilateral is always a parallelogram. 5 Minute Preview

Special Parallelograms

Apply constraints to a parallelogram and experiment with the resulting figure. What type of shape can you be sure that you have under each condition? 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-CO.D: : Make geometric constructions.

GM: G-CO.D.12: : Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods, e.g., compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, or dynamic geometric software.

Constructing Congruent Segments and Angles

Construct congruent segments and angles using a straightedge and compass. Use step-by-step explanations and feedback to develop understanding of the construction. 5 Minute Preview

Constructing Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

Construct parallel and perpendicular lines using a straightedge and compass. Use step-by-step explanations and feedback to develop understanding of the construction. 5 Minute Preview

Segment and Angle Bisectors

Explore the special properties of a point that lies on the perpendicular bisector of a segment, and of a point that lies on an angle bisector. Manipulate the point, the segment, and the angle to see that these properties are always true. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-CO.D.13: : Construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle.

Concurrent Lines, Medians, and Altitudes

Explore the relationships between perpendicular bisectors, the circumscribed circle, angle bisectors, the inscribed circle, altitudes, and medians using a triangle that can be resized and reshaped. 5 Minute Preview

Inscribed Angles

Resize angles inscribed in a circle. Investigate the relationship between inscribed angles and the arcs they intercept. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-SRT: : Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry

GM: G-SRT.A: : Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations.

GM: G-SRT.A.1: : Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor:

GM: G-SRT.A.1.a: : A dilation takes a line not passing through the center of the dilation to a parallel line, and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged.

Dilations

GM: G-SRT.A.1.b: : The dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor.

Dilations

Similar Figures

GM: G-SRT.A.2: : Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides.

Circles

Dilations

Similar Figures

Similarity in Right Triangles

Divide a right triangle at the altitude to the hypotenuse to get two similar right triangles. Explore the relationship between the two triangles. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-SRT.A.3: : Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar.

Similar Figures

GM: G-SRT.B: : Prove and apply theorems involving similarity.

GM: G-SRT.B.4: : Prove and apply theorems about triangles.

Pythagorean Theorem

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem using a dynamic right triangle. Examine a visual, geometric application of the Pythagorean Theorem, using the areas of squares on the sides of the triangle. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

Build right triangles in an interactive geoboard and build squares on the sides of the triangles to discover the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 Minute Preview

Similar Figures

GM: G-SRT.B.5: : Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures.

Chords and Arcs

Explore the relationship between a central angle and the arcs it intercepts. Also explore the relationship between chords and their distance from the circle's center. 5 Minute Preview

Congruence in Right Triangles

Apply constraints to two right triangles. Then drag their vertices around under those conditions. Determine under what conditions the triangles are guaranteed to be congruent. 5 Minute Preview

Constructing Congruent Segments and Angles

Construct congruent segments and angles using a straightedge and compass. Use step-by-step explanations and feedback to develop understanding of the construction. 5 Minute Preview

Dilations

Perimeters and Areas of Similar Figures

Manipulate two similar figures and vary the scale factor to see what changes are possible under similarity. Explore how the perimeters and areas of two similar figures compare. 5 Minute Preview

Proving Triangles Congruent

Similar Figures

Similarity in Right Triangles

Divide a right triangle at the altitude to the hypotenuse to get two similar right triangles. Explore the relationship between the two triangles. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-SRT.C: : Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles.

GM: G-SRT.C.6: : Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles, including special right triangles (30-60-90 and 45-45-90), are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles.

Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles

Investigate the graph of a triangle under constraints. Determine which constraints guarantee isosceles or equilateral triangles. 5 Minute Preview

Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios

Reshape and resize a right triangle and examine how the sine of angle A, the cosine of angle A, and the tangent of angle A change. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-SRT.C.8: : Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.

Cosine Function

Compare the graph of the cosine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the cosine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Distance Formula

Explore the distance formula as an application of the Pythagorean theorem. Learn to see any two points as the endpoints of the hypotenuse of a right triangle. Drag those points and examine changes to the triangle and the distance calculation. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem

Explore the Pythagorean Theorem using a dynamic right triangle. Examine a visual, geometric application of the Pythagorean Theorem, using the areas of squares on the sides of the triangle. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

Build right triangles in an interactive geoboard and build squares on the sides of the triangles to discover the Pythagorean Theorem. 5 Minute Preview

Sine Function

Compare the graph of the sine function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the sine curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Ratios

Reshape and resize a right triangle and examine how the sine of angle A, the cosine of angle A, and the tangent of angle A change. 5 Minute Preview

Tangent Function

Compare the graph of the tangent function with the graph of the angle on the unit circle. Drag a point along the tangent curve and see the corresponding angle on the unit circle. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-C: : Circles

GM: G-C.A: : Understand and apply theorems about circles.

GM: G-C.A.2: : Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, and chords, including the following: the relationship that exists between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; and a radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle.

Chords and Arcs

Explore the relationship between a central angle and the arcs it intercepts. Also explore the relationship between chords and their distance from the circle's center. 5 Minute Preview

Circumference and Area of Circles

Resize a circle and compare its radius, circumference, and area. 5 Minute Preview

Inscribed Angles

Resize angles inscribed in a circle. Investigate the relationship between inscribed angles and the arcs they intercept. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-C.A.3: : Construct the inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle, and prove properties of angles for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle.

Concurrent Lines, Medians, and Altitudes

Explore the relationships between perpendicular bisectors, the circumscribed circle, angle bisectors, the inscribed circle, altitudes, and medians using a triangle that can be resized and reshaped. 5 Minute Preview

Inscribed Angles

GM: G-C.B: : Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles.

GM: G-C.B.5: : Use similarity to determine that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.

Chords and Arcs

Explore the relationship between a central angle and the arcs it intercepts. Also explore the relationship between chords and their distance from the circle's center. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-GPE: : Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations

GM: G-GPE.A: : Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section.

GM: G-GPE.A.1: : Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.

Circles

Distance Formula

Explore the distance formula as an application of the Pythagorean theorem. Learn to see any two points as the endpoints of the hypotenuse of a right triangle. Drag those points and examine changes to the triangle and the distance calculation. 5 Minute Preview

Pythagorean Theorem

Pythagorean Theorem with a Geoboard

GM: G-GPE.B: : Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.

GM: G-GPE.B.7: : Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.

Distance Formula

Explore the distance formula as an application of the Pythagorean theorem. Learn to see any two points as the endpoints of the hypotenuse of a right triangle. Drag those points and examine changes to the triangle and the distance calculation. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-GMD: : Geometric Measurement and Dimension

GM: G-GMD.A: : Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems.

GM: G-GMD.A.1: : Give an informal argument, e.g., dissection arguments, Cavalieri’s principle, or informal limit arguments, for the formulas for the circumference of a circle; area of a circle; volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone.

Circumference and Area of Circles

Resize a circle and compare its radius, circumference, and area. 5 Minute Preview

Prisms and Cylinders

Vary the height and base-edge or radius length of a prism or cylinder and examine how its three-dimensional representation changes. Determine the area of the base and the volume of the solid. Compare the volume of an oblique prism or cylinder to the volume of a right prism or cylinder. 5 Minute Preview

Pyramids and Cones

Vary the height and base-edge or radius length of a pyramid or cone and examine how its three-dimensional representation changes. Determine the area of the base and the volume of the solid. Compare the volume of a skew pyramid or cone to the volume of a right pyramid or cone. 5 Minute Preview

GM: G-GMD.A.3: : Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems.

Prisms and Cylinders

Vary the height and base-edge or radius length of a prism or cylinder and examine how its three-dimensional representation changes. Determine the area of the base and the volume of the solid. Compare the volume of an oblique prism or cylinder to the volume of a right prism or cylinder. 5 Minute Preview

Pyramids and Cones

Vary the height and base-edge or radius length of a pyramid or cone and examine how its three-dimensional representation changes. Determine the area of the base and the volume of the solid. Compare the volume of a skew pyramid or cone to the volume of a right pyramid or cone. 5 Minute Preview

### GM: S: : Statistics and Probability

GM: S-CP: : Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability

GM: S-CP.A: : Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data.

GM: S-CP.A.1: : Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”).

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

Probability Simulations

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of particular outcomes to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Experiment with spinners and compare the experimental probability of a particular outcome to the theoretical probability. Select the number of spinners, the number of sections on a spinner, and a favorable outcome of a spin. Then tally the number of favorable outcomes. 5 Minute Preview

GM: S-CP.A.2: : Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

GM: S-CP.A.3: : Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.

Independent and Dependent Events

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record results of successive draws to find the experimental probability. Perform the drawings with replacement of the marbles to study independent events, or without replacement to explore dependent events. 5 Minute Preview

GM: S-CP.A.4: : Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.

Histograms

Change the values in a data set and examine how the dynamic histogram changes in response. Adjust the interval size of the histogram and see how the shape of the histogram is affected. 5 Minute Preview

GM: S-CP.A.5: : Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations.

Independent and Dependent Events

GM: S-CP.B: : Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model.

GM: S-CP.B.6: : Find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B’s outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in terms of the model.

Independent and Dependent Events

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

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