B: Astronomy (Science of the Universe)

B.2: investigate and analyse the properties of the universe, particularly the evolution and properties of stars, in both qualitative and quantitative terms;

B.2.1: use appropriate terminology related to astronomy, including, but not limited to: Doppler effect, electromagnetic radiation, protostar, celestial equator, ecliptic, altitude and azimuth, and right ascension and declination

Doppler Shift
Doppler Shift Advanced
Star Spectra

B.2.2: locate observable features of the night sky using star charts, computer models, or direct observation, and record the location of these features using astronomical terms (e.g., celestial equator, ecliptic) and systems (e.g., altitude and azimuth, right ascension and declination)

Rotation/Revolution of Venus and Earth

B.2.3: analyse spectroscopic data mathematically or graphically to determine various properties of stars (e.g., determine surface temperature from peak wavelength using Wein?s law; predict chemical composition from spectral absorption lines; determine motion using the Doppler effect)

Star Spectra

B.2.4: use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to determine the interrelationships between the properties of stars (e.g., between mass and luminosity, between colour and luminosity) and to investigate their evolutionary pathways

H-R Diagram

B.2.5: investigate, in quantitative terms, properties of stars, including their distance from Earth (using the parallax method), surface temperature, absolute magnitude, and luminosity

H-R Diagram

B.3: demonstrate an understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe, the principal characteristics of its components, and techniques used to study those components.

B.3.3: describe the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the relationship between wavelength, frequency, and energy) and the ways in which each region of the electromagnetic spectrum is used in making astronomical observations (e.g., X-rays in the search for black holes; infrared radiation to see through interstellar dust)

Herschel Experiment

B.3.4: explain how stars are classified on the basis of their surface temperature, luminosity, and chemical composition

Star Spectra

C: Planetary Science (Science of the Solar System)

C.2: investigate features of and interactions between bodies in the solar system, and the impact of these features and interactions on the existence of life;

C.2.6: investigate techniques used to study and understand objects in the solar system (e.g., the measurement of gravitational pull on space probes to determine the mass of an object, the use of spectroscopy to study atmospheric compositions, the use of the global positioning system to track plate movement and tectonic activity from space)

Star Spectra

C.3: demonstrate an understanding of the internal (geological) processes and external (cosmic) influences operating on bodies in the solar system.

C.3.2: identify and explain the classes of objects orbiting the sun (e.g., planets, dwarf planets, small solar system bodies [SSSBs])

Solar System Explorer

C.3.6: compare Earth with other objects in the solar system with respect to properties such as mass, size, composition, rotation, magnetic field, and gravitational field

Solar System Explorer

C.3.7: identify Kepler?s laws, and use them to describe planetary motions (e.g., the shape of their orbits; differences in their orbital velocity)

Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws

D: Recording Earth?s Geological History

D.2: investigate geological evidence of major changes that have occurred during Earth?s history, and of the various processes that have contributed to these changes;

D.2.6: design and build a model to represent radioactive decay and the concept of half-life determination


D.3: demonstrate an understanding of how changes to Earth?s surface have been recorded and preserved throughout geological time and how they contribute to our knowledge of Earth?s history.

D.3.1: describe evidence for the evolution of life through the Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras, using important groups of fossils that date from each era (e.g., stromatolites, trilobites, brachiopods, crinoids, fish, angiosperms, gymnosperms, dinosaurs, mammals)

Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

E: Earth Materials

E.2: investigate the properties of minerals and characteristics of rocks, including those in their local area;

E.2.3: conduct a series of tests (e.g., hardness, streak, density) to identify and classify common minerals (e.g., quartz, calcite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, muscovite, biotite, talc, graphite, hornblende)

Mineral Identification

E.3: demonstrate an understanding of the properties of minerals and the formation and characteristics of rocks.

E.3.1: identify the physical and chemical properties of selected minerals, and describe the tests used to determine these properties

Mineral Identification

F: Geological Processes

F.2: investigate, through the use of models and analysis of information gathered from various sources, the nature of internal and surficial Earth processes, and the ways in which these processes can be quantified;

F.2.4: investigate, through laboratory inquiry or computer simulation, the main types of seismic waves, and produce a model (e.g., using 3D block diagrams or springs and ropes) to illustrate for each the nature of its propagation, the transfer of energy, and its movement through rocks

Longitudinal Waves

F.2.5: locate the epicentre of an earthquake, given the appropriate seismographic data (e.g., the travel-time curves to three recording stations for a single event)

Earthquake - Determination of Epicenter

F.3: demonstrate an understanding of the processes at work within Earth and on its surface, and the role of these processes in shaping Earth?s surface.

F.3.1: describe the types of boundaries (convergent, divergent, transform) between lithospheric plates, and explain the types of internal Earth processes occurring at each (e.g., subduction, divergence, convergence, hot spot activity, folding, faulting)

Plate Tectonics

F.3.2: describe the characteristics of the main types of seismic waves (i.e., P- and S-waves; R- and L-waves), and explain the different modes of travel, travel times, and types of motion associated with each

Earthquake - Recording Station

F.3.8: identify major areas of tectonic activity in the world by plotting the location of major recorded earthquakes and active volcanoes on a map, and distinguish the areas by type of tectonic activity (e.g., Japan ? convergent boundary; Iceland ? divergent boundary; California ? transform boundary)

Building Pangaea
Plate Tectonics

F.3.9: explain the processes of continuous recycling of major rock types (i.e., the rock cycle) throughout Earth history

Rock Cycle

Correlation last revised: 8/18/2015

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this province's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.