H.P.1A: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers.
H.P.1A.1: Ask questions to
H.P.1A.1.2: refine models, explanations, or designs, or
H.P.1A.1.3: extend the results of investigations or challenge scientific arguments or claims.
H.P.1A.2: Develop, use, and refine models to
H.P.1A.2.1: understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships,
H.P.1A.2.2: test devices or solutions, or
H.P.1A.2.3: communicate ideas to others.
H.P.1A.3: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations:
H.P.1A.3.1: formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information,
H.P.1A.3.2: identify materials, procedures, and variables,
H.P.1A.3.3: use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and
H.P.1A.3.4: record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.
H.P.1A.4: Analyze and interpret data from informational texts and data collected from investigations using a range of methods (such as tabulation, graphing, or statistical analysis) to
H.P.1A.4.1: reveal patterns and construct meaning,
H.P.1A.4.2: support or refute hypotheses, explanations, claims, or designs, or
H.P.1A.4.3: evaluate the strength of conclusions.
H.P.1A.5: Use mathematical and computational thinking to
H.P.1A.5.1: use and manipulate appropriate English and metric units,
H.P.1A.5.2: express relationships between variables for models and investigations, or
H.P.1A.6: Construct explanations of phenomena using
H.P.1A.6.1: primary or secondary scientific evidence and models,
H.P.1A.6.2: conclusions from scientific investigations,
H.P.1A.6.3: predictions based on observations and measurements, or
H.P.1A.6.4: data communicated in graphs, tables, or diagrams.
H.P.1A.8: Obtain and evaluate scientific information to
H.P.1A.8.3: develop models,
H.P.1B: Technology is any modification to the natural world created to fulfill the wants and needs of humans. The engineering design process involves a series of iterative steps used to solve a problem and often leads to the development of a new or improved technology.
H.P.1B.1: Construct devices or design solutions using scientific knowledge to solve specific problems or needs:
H.P.1B.1.3: generate and communicate ideas for possible devices or solutions,
H.P.1B.1.4: build and test devices or solutions,
H.P.1B.1.5: determine if the devices or solutions solved the problem and refine the design if needed, and
H.P.1B.1.6: communicate the results.
H.P.2A: The linear motion of an object can be described by its displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
H.P.2A.1: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations on the straight-line motion of an object to include an interpretation of the object’s displacement, time of motion, constant velocity, average velocity, and constant acceleration.
H.P.2A.3: Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply formulas related to an object’s displacement, constant velocity, average velocity and constant acceleration. Interpret the meaning of the sign of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
H.P.2A.4: Develop and use models to represent an object’s displacement, velocity, and acceleration (including vector diagrams, data tables, motion graphs, dot motion diagrams, and mathematical formulas).
H.P.2A.5: Construct explanations for what is meant by “constant” velocity and “constant” acceleration (including writing descriptions of the object’s motion and calculating the sign and magnitude of the slope of the line on a position-time and velocity-time graph).
H.P.2B: The interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion.
H.P.2B.1: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations involving the motion of an object to determine the relationships among the net force on the object, its mass, and its acceleration (Newton’s second law of motion, Fnet = ma) and analyze collected data to construct an explanation of the object’s motion using Newton’s second law of motion.
H.P.2B.2: Use a free-body diagram to represent the forces on an object.
H.P.2B.3: Use Newton’s Third Law of Motion to construct explanations of everyday phenomena (such as a hammer hitting a nail, the thrust of a rocket engine, the lift of an airplane wing, or a book at rest on a table) and identify the force pairs in each given situation involving two objects and compare the size and direction of each force.
H.P.2B.5: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to support the Law of Conservation of Momentum in the context of two objects moving linearly (p=mv).
H.P.2B.7: Apply physics principles to design a device that minimizes the force on an object during a collision and construct an explanation for the design.
H.P.2B.8: Develop and use models (such as a computer simulation, drawing, or demonstration) and Newton’s Second Law of Motion to construct explanations for why an object moving at a constant speed in a circle is accelerating.
H.P.2C: The contact interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the normal, tension, applied, and frictional forces acting on the objects and by applying Newton’s Laws of Motion.
H.P.2C.1: Use a free-body diagram to represent the normal, tension (or elastic), applied, and frictional forces on an object.
H.P.2C.4: Analyze and interpret data on force and displacement to determine the spring (or elastic) constant of an elastic material (Hooke’s Law, F=-kx), including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield the spring constant, k.
H.P.2D: The non-contact (at a distance) interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. These non-contact forces can be represented as fields.
H.P.2D.2: Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the relationships among the masses of two objects, the attractive gravitational force between them, and the distance between them (Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, F=Gm1m2/r²).
H.P.2D.4: Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the relationships among the charges of two particles, the attractive or repulsive electrical force between them, and the distance between them (Coulomb’s Law. F=kq1q2/r²).
H.P.2D.5: Construct explanations for how the non-contact forces of gravity, electricity, and magnetism can be modeled as fields by sketching field diagrams for two given charges, two massive objects, or a bar magnet and use these diagrams to qualitatively interpret the direction and magnitude of the force at a particular location in the field.
H.P.2D.6: Use a free-body diagram to represent the gravitational force on an object.
H.P.2D.7: Use a free-body diagram to represent the electrical force on a charge.
H.P.2D.8: Develop and use models (such as computer simulations, drawings, or demonstrations) to explain the relationship between moving charged particles (current) and magnetic forces and fields.
H.P.2D.9: Use Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation and Newton’s second law of motion to explain why all objects near Earth’s surface have the same acceleration.
H.P.2D.10: Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply Fnet = ma to analyze problems involving non-contact interactions, including objects in free fall.
H.P.3A: Work and energy are equivalent to each other. Work is defined as the product of displacement and the force causing that displacement; this results in the transfer of mechanical energy. Therefore, in the case of mechanical energy, energy is seen as the ability to do work. This is called the work-energy principle. The rate at which work is done (or energy is transformed) is called power. For machines that do useful work for humans, the ratio of useful power output is the efficiency of the machine. For all energies and in all instances, energy in a closed system remains constant.
H.P.3A.1: Use mathematical and computational thinking to determine the work done by a constant force (W=Fd).
H.P.3A.2: Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with the work done on or by an object and its change in energy.
H.P.3A.3: Obtain information to communicate how energy is conserved in elastic and inelastic collisions.
H.P.3B: Mechanical energy refers to a combination of motion (kinetic energy) and stored energy (potential energy). When only conservative forces act on an object and when no mass is converted to energy, mechanical energy is conserved. Gravitational and electrical potential energy can be modeled as energy stored in the fields created by massive objects or charged particles.
H.P.3B.1: Develop and use models (such as computer simulations, drawings, bar graphs, and diagrams) to exemplify the transformation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act.
H.P.3B.2: Use mathematical and computational thinking to argue the validity of the conservation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act (KE = ½ mv², PEg = mgh, PEe = ½ kx²).
H.P.3C: When there is a temperature difference between two objects, an interaction occurs in the form of a transfer of thermal energy (heat) from the hotter object to the cooler object. Thermal energy is the total internal kinetic energy of the molecules and/or atoms of a system and is related to temperature, which is the average kinetic energy of the particles of a system. Energy always flows from hot to cold through the processes of conduction, convection, or radiation.
H.P.3C.2: Analyze and interpret data to describe the thermal conductivity of different materials.
H.P.3C.3: Develop and use models (such as a drawing or a small-scale greenhouse) to exemplify the energy balance of the Earth (including conduction, convection, and radiation).
H.P.3D: Sound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave that is the result of vibrations (kinetic energy) that transfer energy through a medium.
H.P.3D.3: Develop and use models to explain what happens to the observed frequency of a sound wave when the relative positions of an observer and wave source changes (Doppler effect).
H.P.3D.4: Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems that relate the frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, velocity, and energy of sound waves.
H.P.3E: During electric circuit interactions, electrical energy (energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by a current) is transformed into other forms of energy and transferred to circuit devices and the surroundings. Charged particles and magnets create fields that store energy. Magnetic fields exert forces on moving charged particles. Changing magnetic fields cause electrons in wires to move, creating current.
H.P.3E.1: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the relationship between the current and potential drop (voltage) across an Ohmic resistor. Analyze and interpret data to verify Ohm’s law, including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield R, the resistance of the resistor.
H.P.3E.2: Develop and use models (such as circuit drawings and mathematical representations) to explain how an electric circuit works by tracing the path of the electrons and including concepts of energy transformation, transfer, and the conservation of energy and electric charge.
H.P.3E.5: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine how connecting resistors in series and in parallel affects the power (brightness) of light bulbs.
H.P.3E.6: Obtain and communicate information about the relationship between magnetism and electric currents to explain the role of magnets and coils of wire in microphones, speakers, generators, and motors.
H.P.3F: During radiant energy interactions, energy can be transferred over long distances without a medium. Radiation can be modeled as an electromagnetic wave or as a stream of discrete packets of energy (photons); all radiation travels at the same speed in a vacuum (speed of light). This electromagnetic radiation is a major source of energy for life on Earth.
H.P.3F.2: Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the interaction between the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and various objects (including mirrors, lenses, barriers with two slits, and diffraction gratings) and to construct explanations of the behavior of light (reflection, refraction, transmission, interference) in these instances using models (including ray diagrams).
H.P.3F.3: Use drawings to exemplify the behavior of light passing from one transparent medium to another and construct explanations for this behavior.
H.P.3F.4: Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems that relate the frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, velocity, and energy of light.
H.P.3G: Nuclear energy is energy stored in an atom’s nucleus; this energy holds the atom together and is called binding energy. Binding energy is a reflection of the equivalence of mass and energy; the mass of any nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the individual constituent nucleons that comprise it. Binding energy is also a measure of the strong nuclear force that exists in the nucleus and is responsible for overcoming the repulsive forces among protons. The strong and weak nuclear forces, gravity, and the electromagnetic force are the fundamental forces in nature. Strong and weak nuclear forces determine nuclear sizes, stability, and rates of radioactive decay. At the subatomic scale, the conservation of energy becomes the conservation of mass-energy.
H.P.3G.1: Develop and use models to represent the basic structure of an atom (including protons, neutrons, electrons, and the nucleus).
H.P.3G.2: Develop and use models (such as drawings, diagrams, computer simulations, and demonstrations) to communicate the similarities and differences between fusion and fission. Give examples of fusion and fission reactions and include the concept of conservation of mass-energy.
H.P.3G.3: Construct scientific arguments to support claims for or against the viability of fusion and fission as sources of usable energy.
H.P.3G.4: Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the products of radioactive decay (including alpha, beta, and gamma decay).
H.P.3G.5: Obtain information to communicate how radioactive decay processes have practical applications (such as food preservation, cancer treatments, fossil and rock dating, and as radioisotopic medical tracers).
Correlation last revised: 5/18/2021