Program of Studies
1.1.2: develop an awareness of one's personal role in the preservation of the environment
1.1.3: develop a sense of responsibility toward use of our environment
1.1.1: appreciate the complexity of our planet
1.1.1.A: most of the energy used in the biosphere comes from the Sun and is either stored or reradiated back into space, by extending from Science 10, Unit 1, the Sun's role in heating Earth, and by:
1.1.1.A.1: explaining how energy storage in the biosphere, as a system, can be visualized as a balance between photosynthetic and cellular respiratory activities
1.1.1.A.2: describing how stored biological energy in the biosphere, as a system, is eventually lost as heat; e.g., muscle heat generation, decomposition.
1.1.2.A: performing an experiment to demonstrate, quantitatively, solar energy storage by plants
1.1.3.A: understanding that the biosphere is maintained by solar energy that flows through photosynthesis and respiration and is lost as heat; and by measuring and comparing solar energy variations; and performing experiments that demonstrate plant energy storage, within the context of:
1.1.3.A.1: evaluating the evidence for the influence of ice and snow on the storage of solar energy; i.e., albedo effect, hypothesizing about consequences of fluctuations for biological systems
1.1.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
1.2.1.A: specific chemical elements are cycled through the biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere, by extending from Science 10, Unit 1, the hydrologic cycle, and by:
1.2.1.A.2: explaining how water is cycled through the biosphere along characteristic pathways
1.2.1.A.3: identifying the properties of water and explaining their relevance to the hydrologic cycle; e.g., freezing point, hydrogen bonding, specific heat, density.
1.2.2.B: hypothesizing how alterations in the carbon cycle, as a result of the burning of fossil fuels, might influence other cycling phenomena
1.2.2.C: measuring the rates of precipitation and evaporation in the local area; and comparing this with precipitation and evaporation data of other areas of the province and/or the country
1.2.2.D: designing an experiment to compare carbon dioxide production by plants with that of animals
1.2.3: STS Connections
1.2.3.A: understanding that biosphere cycling of matter perpetuates its steady state; and by predicting and hypothesizing the human influence in these cycles; and by measuring and comparing precipitation and water movement; and designing matter exchange experiments with plants and animals, within the context of:
1.2.3.A.1: analyzing how society affects the biogeochemical cycle of carbon, which in turn influences the greenhouse effect
1.2.3.A.3: evaluating the implications of the greenhouse effect on the hydrologic cycle and the water requirements of society and its agricultural systems
1.2.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
1.3.1.A: air composition is influenced by the activities of organisms, by extending from Science 10, Unit 2, how energy and matter are exchanged between living systems and their environment, and by:
1.3.1.A.1: explaining how the equilibrium between gas exchanges in photosynthesis and cellular respiration influences atmospheric composition
1.3.1.A.2: describing how human activities can have a disrupting influence on the balance, in the biosphere, of photosynthetic and cellular respiratory activities; e.g., fossil fuel combustion, forest destruction.
1.3.2.A: predicting the effect of changes in carbon dioxide and oxygen concentration on the atmospheric equilibrium by a significant reduction of photosynthetic organisms through human activities
1.3.2.B: designing a model of a closed biological system in equilibrium with respect to carbon dioxide, water and oxygen exchange; e.g., space station, Biosphere II.
1.3.3: STS Connections
1.3.3.A: understanding the balance of energy and matter exchange in the biosphere and the influence of human activities on this equilibrium; and by predicting atmospheric equilibrium changes and designing models of closed systems in equilibrium, within the context of:
1.3.3.A.3: evaluating, from the past to the present, the evidence for changes in atmospheric composition, with respect to carbon dioxide and its significance to current biosphere equilibrium
2.1.1: appreciate that energy and matter may flow at very different levels of organization
2.1.2: appreciate that events at the molecular level support the functioning of living systems
2.1.1.A: light energy is stored in plants when photosynthesis uses light energy to synthesize carbohydrates, by extending from Science 10, Unit 2, the structure and function of membranes, and by:
2.1.2.A: using chromatography techniques to demonstrate that plant leaves contain a range of pigments
2.1.2.B: using experimental data to demonstrate, quantitatively, that plant leaves produce starch in the presence of light
2.1.2.C: drawing analogies between the storage of energy by photosynthesis and the storage of energy by active solar generating systems.
2.1.3: appreciate that biologists can pursue careers involving work at very different levels of biological organization
2.1.3.A: understanding how light energy from the Sun is stored in organic compounds by photosynthesis; and by using chromatography technology to demonstrate, quantitatively, energy storage in plants; and by drawing analogies between biological energy storage and active solar storage, within the context of:
2.1.3.A.1: analyzing the role of photosynthesis as the biological basis of agriculture and forestry
2.1.3.A.2: researching and analyzing the effects of herbicides on the biochemistry of photosynthesis
2.1.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
2.2.1.A: cellular respiration involves the release of stored energy from carbohydrates, as well as other organic molecules, by extending from Science 10, Unit 2, growth in living systems, and by:
2.2.1.A.1: explaining, in general terms, how carbohydrates are oxidized by glycolysis and Krebs cycle to produce reducing power in NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (FADH), and chemical potential in ATP, describing where in the cell those processes occur; and understanding that specific detailed knowledge of the biochemistry of the reactions is not required
2.2.1.A.2: explaining, in general terms, how chemiosmosis converts the reducing power of NADH and FADH to the chemical potential of ATP, describing where in the cell the process occurs; and understanding that specific detailed knowledge of the biochemistry of the reactions is not required
2.2.1.A.3: explaining the role of oxygen in cellular respiration; e.g., aerobic, anaerobic
2.2.1.A.4: summarizing and explaining the role of ATP in metabolism; e.g., synthesis, movement, active transport
2.2.1.A.5: explaining how environmental pollutants, like cyanide or hydrogen sulfide, inhibit cellular respiration.
2.2.2.A: designing and performing an experiment to demonstrate that a byproduct of respiration in both autotrophs and heterotrophs is heat
2.2.2.D: drawing analogies between the role of ATP in a cell and money in an economic system
2.2.2.E: investigating the action of metabolic toxins, such as hydrogen sulfide, on cellular respiration.
2.2.3: STS Connections
2.2.3.A: understanding that potential energy stored in organic compounds is released by cellular metabolic processes, the role of oxygen and ATP, and environmental influences on these processes; and by demonstrating, experimentally, heterotroph gas exchange; designing and performing metabolic experiments and investigating the action of metabolic toxins, within the context of:
2.2.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
3.1.2: value the knowledge that all organisms have an important role in maintaining the life of the planet
3.1.3: develop an awareness of one's personal role in the preservation of the environment
3.1.4: develop a sense of responsibility toward use of the environment
3.1.7: value the necessity of being adaptable to changes in the environment · appreciate the explanatory value of the modern synthesis of the Darwinian theory of evolution to all aspects of biology at all organizational levels, as well as appreciate the limitations of the theory
3.1.2.A: performing a field study and measuring, quantitatively, appropriate abiotic factors, such as temperature, precipitation, snow depth, ice thickness, light intensity, pH, hardness and oxygen content in an aquatic and a terrestrial ecosystem; and presenting the data in a form, such as graphs, tables or charts, that describe, in general terms, the abiotic structure of the ecosystem chosen
3.1.3.A: understanding that the biosphere is composed of biomes and ecosystems, each distinctly characterized by their energy and matter exchange; and by performing field studies measuring, gathering and analyzing biotic and abiotic data; evaluating resource and technology dependability; hypothesizing the ecological roles of snow and ice; and predicting future outcomes of ecosystems, within the context of:
3.1.3.A.1: evaluating the impact that human activity has had, or could have, on the ecosystems chosen
3.1.3.A.2: analyzing the needs and interests of society that may influence the natural quality of water used for human consumption
3.2.1.A: the structure of ecosystems can be described, by extending from Biology 20, Unit 2, the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration, and by:
3.2.1.A.1: explaining, quantitatively, the structure of ecosystem trophic levels, using models, such as food chains and webs
3.2.1.A.2: explaining, quantitatively, the energy and matter exchange in ecosystems, using models, such as pyramids.
3.2.2.B: evaluating, quantitatively, the energy and matter exchange in a chosen ecosystem, using a pyramid of mass or numbers
3.2.3: STS Connections
3.2.3.A: understanding how the nature of energy and matter exchange determines ecosystem structure and representing this information in models; and by collecting and analyzing energy and matter exchange information, and building models from this information, within the context of:
3.2.3.A.2: analyzing the interrelationship between the introduction of heavy metals into the environment and matter exchange in natural food chains/webs, and the impact of this on quality of life
3.2.3.A.5: any other relevant context.
3.3.1.A: there is a great deal of variation within populations, by:
3.3.1.A.1: describing, in general terms, the nature of variation within populations; e.g., inherited versus acquired, continuous versus discontinuous
3.3.1.A.2: explaining how populations are adapted to their environment; e.g., drug resistance, cold tolerance
3.3.1.A.3: explaining, in general terms, how a great range of variation exists within individual populations; e.g., blood groups, enzymes
3.3.1.A.4: summarizing and describing lines of evidence to support the evolution of modern species from ancestral forms; e.g., hominids, horses
3.3.1.A.5: describing natural selection and explaining its action on future populations leading to evolutionary change.
3.3.2.A: designing and performing an experiment to measure inherited variation in a plant or animal population
3.3.2.C: gathering and analyzing data, actual or simulated, on plants or animals to demonstrate how morphology evolves over time; e.g., corn, Darwin's finches, pepper moths.
3.3.3: STS Connections
3.3.3.A: understanding that populations are the basic component of ecosystem structure, including range of variation, environmental adaptation and evidence supporting evolutionary change; and by designing and performing experiments to measure variation, hypothesizing adaptive significance of variations; and analyzing morphology changes over time, within the context of:
3.3.3.A.5: any other relevant context.
4.1.1: appreciate the importance of the relationship between the human organism and its environment in maintaining homeostasis
4.1.3: foster a curiosity about the structure and function of the human organism's systems, and their role in maintaining equilibrium with the environment
4.1.4: appreciate how the digestive, respiratory, excretory, transport and defence systems are closely linked to cellular respiration
4.2.2.B: researching the human excretory system and designing a flow chart model to describe how the human organism maintains homeostasis with respect to water and ions in a situation where either the water intake was high; e.g., tea, coffee, soda pop, or where the sodium ion intake was excessive; e.g., anchovy pizza, cheese
Correlation last revised: 2/26/2010