Standards and Frameworks
B.2.1: We live on a relatively small planet, the third from the sun in the only system of planets definitely known to exist (although other, similar systems may be discovered in the universe).
B.2.3: Everything on or anywhere near the earth is pulled toward the earth's center by gravitational force.
B.2.4: Because the earth turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of the earth's yearly orbit around the sun, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of the earth during the year. The difference in heating of the earth's surface produces the planet's seasons and weather patterns.
B.2.5: The moon's orbit around the earth once in about 28 days changes what part of the moon is lighted by the sun and how much of that part can be seen from the earth--the phases of the moon, but the same side of the moon always faces the earth.
B.3.1: Sediments of sand and smaller particles (sometimes containing the remains of organisms) are gradually buried and are cemented together by precipitation of dissolved minerals to form solid rock again.
B.3.2: Sedimentary rock buried deep enough may be reformed by pressure and heat, perhaps melting and recrystallizing into different kinds of rock (metamorphism). These re-formed rock layers may be forced up again to become land surface and even mountains. Subsequently, this new rock too will erode. Rock bears evidence of the minerals, temperatures, and forces that created it.
B.3.3: Thousands of layers of sedimentary rock confirm the long history of the changing surface of the earth and the changing life forms whose remains are found in successive layers. The youngest layers are not always found on top, because of folding, breaking, and uplift of layers.
B.3.4: Although weathered rock is the basic component of soil, the composition and texture of soil and its fertility and resistance to erosion are greatly influenced by plant roots and debris, bacteria, fungi, worms, insects, rodents, and other organisms.
B.3.5: Human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere, and intensive farming, have changed the earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Some of these changes have decreased the capacity of the environment to support some life forms.
B.4.1: All matter is made up of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope. The atoms of any element are alike but are different from atoms of other elements. Atoms may stick together in well-defined molecules or may be packed together in large arrays. Different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances.
B.4.2: Equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses.
B.4.3: Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. Increased temperature means greater average energy of motion, so most substances expand when heated. In solids, the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate. In liquids, the atoms or molecules have higher energy, are more loosely connected, and can slide past one another; some molecules may get enough energy to escape into a gas. In gases, the atoms or molecules have still more energy and are free of one another except during occasional collisions.
B.4.4: The temperature and acidity of a solution influences reaction rates. Many substances dissolve in water, which may greatly facilitate reactions between them.
B.4.5: Scientific ideas about elements were borrowed from some Greek philosophers of 2,000 years earlier, who believed that everything was made from four basic substances: air, earth, fire, and water. It was the combination of these 'elements' in different proportions that gave other substances their observable properties. The Greeks were wrong about those four, but now over 100 different elements have been identified -some rare and some plentiful, out of which everything is made. Because most elements tend to combine with others, few elements are found in their pure form.
B.5.1: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form into another. Most of what goes on in the universe--from exploding stars and biological growth to the operation of machines and the motion of people--involves some form of energy being transformed into another. Energy in the form of heat is almost always one of the products of an energy transformation. Energy appears in different forms. Heat energy is in the disorderly motion of molecules; chemical energy is in the arrangement of atoms; mechanical energy is in moving bodies or in elastically distorted shapes; gravitational energy is in the separation of mutually attracting masses.
B.5.2: Heat can be transferred through materials by the collisions of atoms (conduction) or across space through radiation. If the material is fluid, currents will be set up in it that aid the transfer of heat (convection).
B.6.1: Light from the sun is made up of a mixture of many different colors of light, even though to the eye the light looks almost white. Other things that give off or reflect light have a different mix of colors.
B.6.3: An unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed or path of motion, or both. If the force acts toward a single center, the object's path may curve into an orbit around the center.
B.6.4: Vibrations in materials set up wavelike disturbances that spread away from the source. Sound and earthquake waves are examples. These and other waves move at different speeds in different materials.
B.6.5: Human eyes respond to only a narrow range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation--visible light. Differences of wavelength within that range are perceived as differences in color.
B.7.1: Every object exerts gravitational force on every other object. The force depends on how much mass the objects have and on how far apart they are. The force is hard to detect unless at least one of the objects has a lot of mass.
B.7.2: The sun's gravitational pull holds the earth and other planets in their orbits, just as the planets' gravitational pull keeps their moons in orbit around them.
C.1.4: For sexually reproducing organisms, a species comprises all organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring.
C.2.1: In some kinds of organisms, all the genes come from a single parent, whereas in organisms that have sexes, typically half of the genes come from each parent.
C.2.2: In sexual reproduction, a single specialized cell from a female merges with a specialized cell from a male. As the fertilized egg, carrying genetic information from each parent, multiplies to form the complete organism with about a trillion cells, the same genetic information is copied in each cell.
C.2.3: New varieties of cultivated plants and domestic animals have resulted from selective breeding for particular traits.
C.3.2: Cells continually divide to make more cells for growth and repair. Various organs and tissues function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal.
C.3.4: About two thirds of the weight of cells is accounted for by water, which gives cells many of their properties.
C.4.1: In all environments--freshwater, marine, forest, desert, grassland, mountain, and others--organisms with similar needs may compete with one another for resources, including food, space, water, air, and shelter. In any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.
C.4.2: Two types of organisms may interact with one another in several ways: they may be in a producer/consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host relationship. Or one organism may scavenge or decompose another. Relationships may be competitive or mutually beneficial. Some species have become so adapted to each other that neither could survive without the other.
C.5.1: Food provides the fuel and the building material for all organisms. Plants use the energy from light to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water. This food can be used immediately or stored for later use. Organisms that eat plants break down the plant structures to produce the materials and energy they need to survive. Then they are consumed by other organisms.
C.5.3: Energy can change from one form to another in living things. Animals get energy from oxidizing their food, releasing some of its energy as heat. Almost all food energy comes originally from sunlight.
C.6.1: Small differences between parents and offspring can accumulate (through selective breeding) in successive generations so that descendants are very different from their ancestors.
C.6.3: Many thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the long history of the earth and for the long history of changing life forms whose remains are found in the rocks. More recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species.
D.1.2: Human beings have many similarities and differences. The similarities make it possible for human beings to reproduce and to donate blood and organs to one another throughout the world. Their differences provide the ability for adaptive change.
Correlation last revised: 11/13/2008