SBI4U.A.1: Overall Expectations
SBI4U.A.1.2: conduct laboratory investigations into the transformation of energy in the cell, including photosynthesis and cellular respiration, and into the chemical and physical properties of biological molecules;
SBI4U.A.1.3: explain ways in which knowledge of the metabolic processes of living systems can contribute to technological development and affect community processes and personal choices in everyday life.
SBI4U.A.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SBI4U.A.2.1: apply the laws of thermodynamics to the transfer of energy in the cell, particularly with respect to respiration and photosynthesis;
SBI4U.A.2.3: describe the chemical structure, mechanisms, and dynamics of enzymes in cellular metabolism (e.g., the function of enzymes in metabolic reactions in mitochondria or chloroplasts);
SBI4U.A.2.5: describe how such molecules as glucose, ATP, pyruvic acid, NADH, and oxygen function within energy transformations in the cell, and explain the roles of such cell components as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and enzymes in the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis;
SBI4U.A.2.6: compare matter and energy transformations associated with the processes of cellular respiration (aerobic and anaerobic) and photosynthesis (e.g., for each process, compare the role of oxygen and the role of organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts).
SBI4U.A.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SBI4U.A.3.3: investigate and explain the relationship between metabolism and the structure of biomolecules, using problem-solving techniques (e.g., analyse the difference between the metabolic rates of sweet corn and starchy corn);
SBI4U.A.3.4: design and carry out an experiment related to a cell process (e.g., enzyme activity, membrane transport), controlling the major variables and adapting or extending procedures where required (e.g., conduct an experiment to find optimal conditions [pH, concentration, and temperature] for various enzymes and membrane transport);
SBI4U.A.3.5: determine the similarities and differences between mitochondria and chloroplasts (e.g., compare the structure and function of a mitochondrion and a chloroplast by examining micrographs and identifying reactants, products, and pathways);
SBI4U.A.3.6: interpret qualitative and quantitative observations, gathered through investigation, of the products of cellular respiration and photosynthesis (e.g., type and quantity produced) and, either by hand or by computer, compile and display the results in an appropriate format.
SBI4U.A.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SBI4U.A.4.1: relate knowledge gained from their current studies of metabolism to their learning in the fields of chemical thermodynamics and physical energy;
SBI4U.A.4.2: describe technological applications of enzyme activity in the food and pharmaceutical industries (e.g., the production of dairy products using micro-organisms; the use of yeast to make bread; the use of enzymes to control reaction rates in the pharmaceutical industry);
SBI4U.B.1: Overall Expectations
SBI4U.B.1.1: explain the concepts of gene and gene expression and the roles of DNA, RNA, and chromosomes in cellular metabolism, growth, and division, and demonstrate an awareness of the universality of the genetic code;
SBI4U.B.1.2: explain, through laboratory activities and conceptual models, processes within the cell nucleus;
SBI4U.B.1.3: describe some of the theoretical issues surrounding scientific research into genetic continuity; the general impact and philosophical implications of the knowledge gained; and some of the issues raised by related technological applications.
SBI4U.B.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SBI4U.B.2.1: compare the structure and function of RNA and DNA, and explain their roles in protein synthesis;
SBI4U.B.2.2: describe the current model of DNA replication and methods of repair following an error;
SBI4U.B.2.3: explain the steps involved in protein synthesis (e.g., transcription and translation) and the control mechanisms for genetic expression using regulatory proteins (e.g., lac operon, tryp operon);
SBI4U.B.2.4: describe how mutagens such as radiation and chemicals can change the genetic material in cells by causing mutations (e.g., point mutations and frame-shifts);
SBI4U.B.2.5: demonstrate an understanding of genetic manipulation, and of its industrial and agricultural applications (e.g., describe the processes involved in cloning, or in sequencing of DNA bases; explain the processes involved in the manipulation of genetic material and protein synthesis; explain the development and mechanisms of the polymerization chain reaction);
SBI4U.B.2.6: describe the functions of the cell components used in genetic engineering (e.g., the roles of plasmids, restriction enzymes, recombinant DNA, and vectors);
SBI4U.B.2.7: outline contributions of genetic engineers, molecular biologists, and biochemists that have led to the further development of the field of genetics (e.g., the findings of Cohen-Boyer , Chilton , and Stanford ; transfer of the somatotropine gene ).
SBI4U.B.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SBI4U.B.3.1: illustrate the genetic code by examining/ analysing a segment of DNA (e.g., compare base sequences of DNA for an enzyme in humans and another animal; compare base sequences in DNA in order to recognize an anomaly);
SBI4U.B.3.2: interpret micrographs that demonstrate the cellular structures involved in protein synthesis;
SBI4U.B.3.3: investigate and analyse the cell components involved in protein synthesis, using laboratory equipment safely and appropriately (e.g., extract DNA; compare different proteins; separate DNA or polypeptides using electrophoresis);
SBI4U.B.3.4: describe the major findings that have arisen from the Human Genome Project (e.g., create a timeline of the project, or make a chart of the discoveries).
SBI4U.C.1: Overall Expectations
SBI4U.C.1.1: describe and explain the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in the maintenance of homeostasis;
SBI4U.C.1.2: analyse, through experiments and the use of models, the feedback mechanisms that maintain chemical and physical homeostasis in animal systems;
SBI4U.C.1.3: analyse how environmental factors (physical, chemical, emotional, and microbial) and technological applications affect/contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis, and examine related societal issues.
SBI4U.C.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SBI4U.C.2.1: describe the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine and nervous systems, and explain their roles in homeostasis;
SBI4U.C.2.4: describe and explain homeostatic processes involved in maintaining water, ionic, thermal, and acid-base equilibria in response to both a changing environment and medical treatments (e.g., explain the feedback mechanisms involved in water balance or thermo-regulation; explain the buffering system of blood; describe the effect of disorders of the nervous system or endocrine system; describe how chemotherapy affects homeostasis);
SBI4U.C.2.6: predict the impact of environmental factors such as allergens on homeostasis within an organism.
SBI4U.C.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SBI4U.C.3.1: construct a model that illustrates the essential components of the homeostatic process (e.g., use a flow chart to describe representative feedback mechanisms in living things);
SBI4U.C.3.3: design and conduct an experiment using invertebrates to study the response to external stimuli (e.g., instinctive behaviour in response to chemical stimuli or light);
SBI4U.C.3.4: compile and display, either by hand or computer, data and information about homeostatic phenomena in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs, and scatter plots (e.g., create a chart of hormones showing the source, stimulation, target organ, action and nature, and related disorders for each; make a graph of the reaction time of the pupil of the eye when stimulated by light of different colours; create a chart of allergies and the foods that trigger them).
SBI4U.C.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SBI4U.C.4.3: describe some Canadian contributions to knowledge and technology in the field of homeostasis (e.g., the discovery of a new blood stem cell; the discovery of insulin).
SBI4U.D.1: Overall Expectations
SBI4U.D.1.1: analyse evolutionary mechanisms, and the processes and products of evolution;
SBI4U.D.1.2: evaluate the scientific evidence that supports the theory of evolution;
SBI4U.D.1.3: analyse how the science of evolution can be related to current areas of biological study, and how technological development has extended or modified knowledge in the field of evolution.
SBI4U.D.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SBI4U.D.2.2: describe, and put in historical and cultural context, some scientists' contributions that have changed evolutionary concepts (e.g., describe the contributions - and the prevailing beliefs of their time - of Lyell, Malthus, Lamarck, Darwin, and Gould and Eldridge);
SBI4U.D.2.3: analyse evolutionary mechanisms (e.g., natural selection, sexual selection, genetic variation, genetic drift, artificial selection, biotechnology) and their effects on biodiversity and extinction (e.g., describe examples that illustrate current theories of evolution, such as the darkening over time, in polluted areas, of the pigment of the peppered moth, an example of industrial melanism);
SBI4U.D.2.4: explain, using examples, the process of adaptation of individual organisms to their environment (e.g., explain the significance of a short life cycle in the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria populations).
SBI4U.D.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SBI4U.D.3.2: identify questions to investigate that arise from concepts of evolution and diversity (e.g., Why do micro-organisms evolve so quickly? What factors have contributed to the dilemma that pharmaceutical companies face in trying to develop new antibiotics because so many micro-organisms are resistant to existing antibiotics?);
SBI4U.D.3.3: solve problems related to evolution using the Hardy-Weinberg equation;
SBI4U.D.3.4: develop and use appropriate sampling procedures to conduct investigations into questions related to evolution (e.g., to determine the incidence of various hereditary characteristics in a given population), and record data and information;
SBI4U.D.3.5: formulate and weigh hypotheses that reflect the various perspectives that have influenced the development of the theory of evolution (e.g., apply different theoretical models for interpreting evidence).
SBI4U.D.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SBI4U.D.4.1: relate present-day research and theories on the mechanisms of evolution to current ideas in molecular genetics (e.g., relate current thinking about adaptations to ideas about genetic mutations);
SBI4U.D.4.2: describe and analyse examples of technology that have extended or modified the scientific understanding of evolution (e.g., the contribution of radiometric dating to the palaeontological analysis of fossils).
SBI4U.E.1: Overall Expectations
SBI4U.E.1.1: analyse the components of population growth, and explain the factors that affect the growth of various populations of species;
SBI4U.E.1.2: investigate, analyse, and evaluate populations, their interrelationships within ecosystems, and their effect on the sustainability of life on this planet;
SBI4U.E.1.3: evaluate the carrying capacity of the Earth, and relate the carrying capacity to the growth of populations, their consumption of natural resources, and advances in technology.
SBI4U.E.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SBI4U.E.2.1: explain the concepts of interaction (e.g., competition, predation, defence mechanisms, symbiotic relationships, parasitic relationships) among different species of animals and plants;
SBI4U.E.2.2: describe characteristics of a population, such as growth, density, distribution, carrying capacity, minimum/viable size;
SBI4U.E.2.3: compare and explain the fluctuation of a population of a species of plant, wild animal, and micro-organism, with an emphasis on such factors as carrying capacity, fecundity, and predation;
SBI4U.E.2.4: use examples of the energy pyramid to explain production, distribution, and use of food resources;
SBI4U.E.2.6: explain, using demographic principles, problems related to the rapid growth of human populations and the effects of that growth on future generations (e.g., relate the carrying capacity of the Earth to the growth of populations and their consumption of resources).
SBI4U.E.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SBI4U.E.3.1: use conceptual and mathematical models to determine the growth of populations of various species in an ecosystem (e.g., use the concepts of exponential, sigmoid, and sinusoidal growth to describe and predict various populations);
SBI4U.E.3.2: determine experimentally the characteristics of population growth of two populations (e.g., examine the population cycles of a predator and a prey, or those of two populations that compete for food);
SBI4U.E.3.3: using the ecological hierarchy for living things, evaluate how a change in one population can affect the entire hierarchy both physically and economically (e.g., the effects of the killing off of species of fish by lamprey eels, or the results of the introduction of zebra mussels into the Great Lakes);
SBI4U.E.3.4: investigate, individually or collaboratively, the effects of human population growth on the environment and the quality of life (e.g., effects on ecosystems, such as the elimination of wildlife, plants, and farmland; causes and effects of ozone depletion or acid rain).
SCH4U.A.1: Overall Expectations
SCH4U.A.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of the structure of various organic compounds, and of chemical reactions involving these compounds;
SCH4U.A.1.3: evaluate the impact of organic compounds on our standard of living and the environment.
SCH4U.A.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SCH4U.A.2.2: describe some physical properties of the classes of organic compounds in terms of solubility in different solvents, molecular polarity, odour, and melting and boiling points;
SCH4U.A.2.3: describe different types of organic reactions, such as substitution, addition, elimination, oxidation, esterification, and hydrolysis;
SCH4U.A.2.5: describe a variety of organic compounds present in living organisms, and explain their importance to those organisms (e.g., proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids).
SCH4U.A.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4U.A.3.1: use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to organic chemistry (e.g., functional group, polymer);
SCH4U.A.3.3: build molecular models of a variety of aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic compounds;
SCH4U.A.3.5: predict and correctly name the products of organic reactions, including substitution, addition, elimination, esterification, hydrolysis, oxidation, and polymerization reactions (e.g., preparation of an ester, oxidation of alcohols with permanganate);
SCH4U.A.3.6: carry out laboratory procedures to synthesize organic compounds (e.g., preparation of an ester, polymerization).
SCH4U.A.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SCH4U.A.4.2: describe the variety and importance of organic compounds in our lives (e.g., plastics, synthetic fibres, pharmaceutical products);
SCH4U.B.1: Overall Expectations
SCH4U.B.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of the energy transformations and kinetics of chemical changes;
SCH4U.B.1.2: determine energy changes for physical and chemical processes and rates of reaction, using experimental data and calculations;
SCH4U.B.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SCH4U.B.2.1: compare the energy changes resulting from physical change, chemical reactions, and nuclear reactions (fission and fusion);
SCH4U.B.2.3: describe, with the aid of a graph, the rate of reaction as a function of the change of concentration of a reactant or product with respect to time; express the rate of reaction as a rate law equation (first- or second-order reactions only); and explain the concept of half-life for a reaction;
SCH4U.B.2.4: explain, using collision theory and potential energy diagrams, how factors such as temperature, surface area, nature of reactants, catalysts, and concentration control the rate of chemical reactions;
SCH4U.B.2.5: analyse simple potential energy diagrams of chemical reactions (e.g., potential energy diagrams showing the relative energies of reactants, products, and activated complex);
SCH4U.B.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4U.B.3.6: determine through experimentation a rate of reaction (e.g., of hydrogen peroxide decomposition), and measure the effect on it of temperature, concentration, and catalysis.
SCH4U.B.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SCH4U.B.4.3: describe the use of catalysts in industry (e.g., catalytic converters) and in biochemical systems (e.g., enzymes) on the basis of information gathered from print and electronic sources;
SCH4U.B.4.4: describe examples of slow chemical reactions (e.g., rusting), rapid reactions (e.g., explosions), and reactions whose rates can be controlled (e.g., food decay, catalytic decomposition of automobile exhaust).
SCH4U.C.1: Overall Expectations
SCH4U.C.1.3: explain the importance of chemical equilibrium in various systems, including ecological, biological, and technological systems.
SCH4U.C.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SCH4U.C.2.2: demonstrate an understanding of the law of chemical equilibrium as it applies to the concentrations of the reactants and products at equilibrium;
SCH4U.C.2.8: compare strong and weak acids and bases using the concept of equilibrium;
SCH4U.C.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4U.C.3.4: calculate the molar solubility of a pure substance in water or in a solution of a common ion, given the solubility product constant (Ksp), and vice versa;
SCH4U.C.3.5: predict the formation of precipitates by using the solubility product constant;
SCH4U.C.3.8: solve problems involving acid-base titration data and the pH at the equivalence point.
SCH4U.C.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SCH4U.C.4.2: identify effects of solubility on biological systems (e.g., kidney stones, dissolved gases in the circulatory system of divers, the use of barium sulfate in medical diagnosis);
SCH4U.D.1: Overall Expectations
SCH4U.D.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of fundamental concepts related to oxidation-reduction and the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy;
SCH4U.D.1.2: build and explain the functioning of simple galvanic and electrolytic cells; use equations to describe these cells; and solve quantitative problems related to electrolysis;
SCH4U.D.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SCH4U.D.2.1: demonstrate an understanding of oxidation and reduction in terms of the loss and the gain of electrons or change in oxidation number;
SCH4U.D.2.3: describe electrochemical cells in terms of oxidation and reduction half-cells whose voltages can be used to determine overall cell potential;
SCH4U.D.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4U.D.3.7: measure through experimentation the mass of metal deposited by electroplating (e.g., copper from copper II sulfate), and apply Faraday's law to relate the mass of metal deposited to the amount of charge passed.
SCH4U.E.1: Overall Expectations
SCH4U.E.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of quantum mechanical theory, and explain how types of chemical bonding account for the properties of ionic, molecular, covalent network, and metallic substances;
SCH4U.E.1.2: investigate and compare the properties of solids and liquids, and use bonding theory to predict the shape of simple molecules;
SCH4U.E.1.3: describe products and technologies whose development has depended on understanding molecular structure, and technologies that have advanced the knowledge of atomic and molecular theory.
SCH4U.E.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SCH4U.E.2.1: explain the experimental observations and inferences made by Rutherford and Bohr in developing the planetary model of the hydrogen atom;
SCH4U.E.2.2: describe the quantum mechanical model of the atom (e.g., orbitals, electron probability density) and the contributions of individuals to this model (e.g., those of Planck, de Broglie, Einstein, Heisenberg, and Schr?dinger);
SCH4U.E.2.3: list characteristics of the s, p, d, and f blocks of elements, and explain the relationship between position of elements in the periodic table, their properties, and their electron configurations;
SCH4U.E.2.5: explain how the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model can be used to predict molecular shape.
SCH4U.E.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4U.E.3.1: use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to structure and bonding (e.g., orbital, absorption spectrum, quantum, photon, dipole);
SCH4U.E.3.2: write electron configurations for elements in the periodic table, using the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule;
SCH4U.E.3.6: conduct experiments to observe and analyse the physical properties of different substances, and to determine the type of bonding present.
SCH4U.E.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SCH4U.E.4.1: describe some applications of principles relating to atomic and molecular structure in analytical chemistry and medical diagnosis (e.g., infrared spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, nuclear medicine, medical applications of spectroscopy);
SCH4U.E.4.2: describe some specialized new materials that have been created on the basis of the findings of research on the structure of matter, chemical bonding, and other properties of matter (e.g., bulletproof fabric, superconductors, superglue);
SCH4U.E.4.3: describe advances in Canadian research on atomic and molecular theory (e.g., the work of Richard Bader at McMaster University in developing electron-density maps for small molecules; the work of R.J. LeRoy at the University of Waterloo in developing the mathematical technique for determining the radius of molecules called the LeRoy Radius).
SCH4C.A.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SCH4C.A.2.2: describe and explain basic processes and phenomena involved in qualitative analysis, including flame tests, precipitation reactions, and absorption spectra;
SCH4C.A.2.3: relate observations from flame tests and absorption spectra to the concept of quanta of energy proposed by Bohr;
SCH4C.A.2.4: explain covalent bonding in simple molecules using Lewis structures (e.g., H2, Cl2, O2, H2O, CH4);
SCH4C.A.2.5: demonstrate an understanding of the formation of ionic bonds between metals and non-metals, and relate the charge on an ion to the number of electrons lost or gained.
SCH4C.A.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4C.A.3.3: predict the precipitate formed in a chemical reaction by writing double displacement and net ionic equations and using a table of solubility rules;
SCH4C.A.3.5: identify an unknown gas sample (e.g., hydrogen, helium, neon) by comparing its observed absorption spectrum with those of known gases.
SCH4C.A.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SCH4C.A.4.1: describe some applications of spectroscopy (e.g., in astronomy to identify the composition of stars);
SCH4C.B.1: Overall Expectations
SCH4C.B.1.2: carry out various laboratory tests and reactions involving organic compounds;
SCH4C.B.1.3: describe the importance of organic compounds in consumer products, technological devices, and biochemical applications, and explain some of the issues related to their environmental and social impact.
SCH4C.B.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SCH4C.B.2.1: demonstrate an understanding of the particular characteristics of the carbon atom in terms of the type of bonding and the formation of long chains;
SCH4C.B.2.2: explain the general properties of molecules containing oxygen or nitrogen (e.g., polarity, solubility in water);
SCH4C.B.2.4: describe, using structural formulae, typical organic reactions such as addition, combustion, and addition polymerization reactions;
SCH4C.B.2.5: explain the principle underlying the use of distillation to separate organic compounds.
SCH4C.B.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4C.B.3.1: use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to organic chemistry (e.g., electronegativity, covalent bond, functional group, polymer);
SCH4C.B.3.3: draw Lewis structures to represent covalent bonding in organic molecules (e.g., methane, ethanol, butene, acetylene);
SCH4C.B.3.4: determine through experimentation the physical and chemical properties of some common organic compounds (e.g., aqueous and non-aqueous solubility, combustibility, conductivity, odour), and identify patterns and trends in these observations;
SCH4C.B.3.5: identify through experimentation some of the products of the combustion of a hydrocarbon and an alcohol, and write balanced chemical equations to represent the combustion reaction;
SCH4C.B.3.6: synthesize a condensation product (e.g., aspirin or an ester), a common organic compound (e.g., soap), and a synthetic polymer (e.g., cross-link polyvinyl alcohol using a solution of borax).
SCH4C.B.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SCH4C.B.4.1: identify useful organic compounds (e.g., non-stick coatings for cookware) on the basis of information gathered from print and electronic sources, and illustrate their molecular structure and functional groups using representations drawn by hand or by computer;
SCH4C.B.4.3: explain the dangers associated with the use of organic solvents (e.g., combustibility, toxicity) and the necessary precautions to be taken;
SCH4C.C.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4C.C.3.2: use the following laboratory equipment and instruments safely and accurately: voltmeters, electrical sources, connecting wires;
SCH4C.C.3.3: classify, using experimental evidence, metals, acids, bases, salt solutions, and covalent substances as conductors or non-conductors of electricity;
SCH4C.C.3.5: predict the spontaneity of displacement reactions between metal elements and metal salts based on the activity series, and verify the predictions through experimentation;
SCH4C.C.3.7: describe an electrochemical cell in terms of half-cell reactions, location of electrodes, direction of electron flow, and direction of migration of ions;
SCH4C.D.1: Overall Expectations
SCH4C.D.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of the mole concept as well as of quantitative relationships in chemical reactions;
SCH4C.D.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SCH4C.D.2.1: define the mole concept and demonstrate an understanding of its usefulness in the analysis of quantities involved in chemical reactions (e.g., explain how the mole concept allows the calculation of the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a quantity of substance);
SCH4C.D.2.2: explain how the following variables are related: coefficients in balanced chemical equations, quantity in moles, mass, and number of particles;
SCH4C.D.2.3: identify sources of experimental error that would explain a percentage yield other than 100 per cent.
SCH4C.D.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4C.D.3.1: use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to stoichiometry (e.g., molar mass, molarity, percentage yield, Avogadro's number);
SCH4C.D.3.2: conduct quantitative analyses, using correctly and accurately the following instruments: pipette, burette, volumetric flask, spectrophotometer, electronic balance;
SCH4C.D.3.3: calculate the molecular mass and molar mass of a compound with the aid of the periodic table;
SCH4C.D.3.4: calculate percentage composition of a compound using experimental data or its chemical formula;
SCH4C.D.3.5: solve problems involving relationships among the following variables: quantity in moles, mass, number of particles, concentration, volume of solution;
SCH4C.D.3.6: solve problems involving stoichiometric relationships in balanced chemical equations;
SCH4C.D.3.7: calculate percentage yield in a chemical reaction using experimental data, and identify sources of error;
SCH4C.D.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SCH4C.D.4.1: give examples of everyday situations in which an understanding of quantitative relationships of substances is important (e.g., in making decisions about quantities in cooking recipes, in determining dosages in medical prescriptions);
SCH4C.D.4.2: explain why it is important to ensure accuracy in the concentration of certain solutions (e.g., cough syrup, intravenous solutions);
SCH4C.E.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SCH4C.E.2.1: explain in qualitative terms the effect of temperature and pressure on the volume of a fixed quantity of gas;
SCH4C.E.2.3: explain the difference between strong and weak acids and bases in terms of degree of dissociation (e.g., as measured using solution conductivity);
SCH4C.E.2.6: identify substances in environmental water (including ions that contribute to hardness) whose concentration must be measured and controlled to ensure that the water is fit for human use;
SCH4C.E.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SCH4C.E.3.1: use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to chemical analysis (e.g., ozone, hard water, titration, pH value);
SCH4C.E.3.2: use the following instruments correctly and accurately: electronic balance, burette, pH meter;
SCH4C.E.3.3: demonstrate through experimentation the acid-base character of solutions of oxides of metals and non-metals, and compare these solutions to the substances present in acid rain;
SCH4C.E.3.4: write balanced chemical equations to represent neutralization of acids and bases;
SCH4C.E.3.6: determine the concentration of dissolved ions (e.g., calcium ions) in a water sample, using gravimetric and colorimetric analysis.
SCH4C.E.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SCH4C.E.4.1: demonstrate an awareness of how governmental regulations (e.g., the Great Lakes Action Plan) as well as the actions of individual people can improve air and water quality (e.g., discuss how individuals can contribute to the improvement of air quality through their choice of transportation);
SCH4C.E.4.3: explain the importance of quantitative analysis of substances in air and water samples (e.g., explain how measuring levels of dissolved oxygen in samples of lake or river water is important in monitoring the health and use of the surrounding ecosystem).
SES4U.A.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SES4U.A.2.1: visualize and describe the size, shape, and motions of the solar system, and the place of the Earth within it;
SES4U.A.2.2: describe the origin and evolution of the Earth and other objects in the solar system, and identify the fundamental forces and processes involved;
SES4U.A.2.4: describe and explain the following external processes and phenomena that affect the Earth: radiation and particles from the "quiet" and "active" sun; gravity and tides of the sun and moon; and the impacts of asteroidal and cometary material;
SES4U.A.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SES4U.A.3.2: visualize and describe the size, shape, and motions of the solar system, and compare the Earth with other planets and objects within it, on the basis of information gathered through research;
SES4U.A.3.4: identify surface features of the Earth and other objects in the solar system (e.g., craters, faults, volcanoes), using light, infrared, and radio/radar images;
SES4U.A.3.5: investigate, either through laboratory activities or research, the interaction of radiation and impacting particles with Earth materials such as air, water, and rock;
SES4U.A.3.6: assess the risks associated with solar ultraviolet radiation, and with the collision of asteroidal and cometary material with the Earth.
SES4U.A.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SES4U.A.4.1: explain how the study of other planets and objects in the solar system has led to a better understanding of the Earth (e.g., explain how studying the greenhouse effect on Venus has increased understanding of the same effect on Earth);
SES4U.A.4.3: describe how observations and measurements of the Earth made from space are used to study and better understand natural physical elements of the Earth's environment (e.g., its crust, water, air) as well as human-made elements (e.g., crops, cities, air and water pollution);
SES4U.B.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SES4U.B.2.3: demonstrate an understanding of the continuous recycling of major rock types throughout Earth history, of the evidence that this process provides with respect to the length and complexity of Earth history, and of the very late appearance of human beings in the geological record;
SES4U.B.2.4: describe various kinds of evidence that suggests that life forms, climate, continental positions, and the Earth's crust have changed over time (e.g., the extinction of the dinosaurs, evidence of past glaciations, evidence of the existence of Pangaea and Gondwanaland).
SES4U.B.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SES4U.B.4.1: explain the interactions of the atmosphere and hydrosphere in the water cycle, and the impact of these interactions on humans;
SES4U.C.1: Overall Expectations
SES4U.C.1.1: distinguish between minerals and rocks, and describe the formation and characteristics of both;
SES4U.C.1.2: apply a series of specific tests to identify minerals and rocks, including those in the local area, and to determine their physical properties;
SES4U.C.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SES4U.C.2.1: identify different minerals by their physical and chemical properties, and demonstrate understanding that minerals are the constituents of rocks;
SES4U.C.2.2: describe the formation of igneous rocks (plutonic and volcanic), and identify their distinguishing characteristics (e.g., composition and flow behaviour; characteristics of volcanic rocks that indicate the type of volcano in which they were formed);
SES4U.C.2.3: describe the formation of clastic and chemical sediments, and of the corresponding sedimentary rocks;
SES4U.C.2.4: describe the different ways in which metamorphic rocks are formed (i.e., through changes in temperature, pressure, and chemical conditions) and the factors that contribute to their variety (e.g., variation in parent rock);
SES4U.C.2.5: explain (e.g., by interpreting a rock cycle diagram) how rocks and their constituent minerals are continuously being recycled.
SES4U.C.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SES4U.C.3.3: apply a series of tests to identify common igneous rocks (e.g., granite, obsidian, andesite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite), and classify each according to its origin (e.g., volcanic, plutonic), texture (e.g., coarse- or fine-grained, vesicular, glassy), and composition (e.g., mafic, felsic, intermediate);
SES4U.C.3.4: apply a series of tests to identify sedimentary rocks (e.g., conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, shale, limestone, chert, gypsum, rock salt, coal), and classify each according to its origin (e.g., clastic, chemical), texture (e.g., coarse- or fine-grained, detrital), and composition;
SES4U.C.3.5: apply a series of tests to identify and classify metamorphic rocks (e.g., slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss, quartzite, marble) and, on the basis of the characteristics of each type, identify its parent rock and the temperature, pressure, and chemical conditions at its formation;
SES4U.C.3.6: investigate and describe the geological setting of the local area (e.g., examine the geological setting of a local river/stream bed or lakeshore, and identify and classify rock types on the basis of representative samples collected at the site).
SES4U.C.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SES4U.C.4.3: describe the uses and evaluate the economic importance of minerals, rocks, and metallic resources (e.g., gold, silver, nickel, copper) and non-metallic resources (e.g., sand and gravel, aggregates, oil and gas, lime, gypsum, industrial minerals, gems);
SES4U.D.1: Overall Expectations
SES4U.D.1.1: identify the processes at work within the Earth (e.g., plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanism) and on its surface (e.g., running water, weathering and erosion, mass wasting, glaciation), and describe the role of both types of processes in shaping the Earth's surface;
SES4U.D.1.3: demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between internal and surficial Earth processes (e.g., earthquake activity, volcanic eruptions, floods, erosion) and the ways in which they affect human activity.
SES4U.D.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SES4U.D.2.1: demonstrate an understanding of the kinds of evidence that Earth scientists use to document lithospheric plate motion (e.g., the corresponding shapes of the coastlines of Africa and South America; fossil evidence);
SES4U.D.2.2: distinguish between faults and joints;
SES4U.D.2.3: describe the characteristics of the three main types of seismic waves, P-, S-, and L-waves, and explain the different modes of travel, travel times, and types of motion associated with each;
SES4U.D.2.4: distinguish between erosion and weathering, and describe the processes and effects of physical, chemical, and biological weathering;
SES4U.D.2.6: identify types of sediment transport (e.g., wind, water, glacial), and compare the particle size and shape, degree of sorting, and sedimentary structures resulting from each;
SES4U.D.2.8: demonstrate an understanding of the importance of aquifers and of their fragility in terms of contamination and depletion.
SES4U.D.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SES4U.D.3.1: describe, on the basis of information gathered from print and electronic sources, the various types of possible margins between lithospheric plates (e.g., convergent, divergent, transform, and intraplate activity) and the types of internal Earth processes occurring at each;
SES4U.D.3.2: produce diagrams of the following structures, and identify examples of them in maps and photographs: normal, reverse, thrust, and strike-slip (transform) faults; domes and basins; anticlines and synclines;
SES4U.D.3.3: investigate and produce a model of each type of seismic wave, using springs and ropes, and describe for each the nature of its propagation and the resulting movement within the rocks through which it is travelling;
SES4U.D.3.4: compare qualitative and quantitative methods (e.g., the Mercalli Scale and the Richter Scale) used to measure earthquake intensity and magnitude;
SES4U.D.3.5: produce a diagram or model, to scale, of the interior of the Earth in order to differentiate among the layers of the Earth and their characteristics (e.g., use cross-sections to provide the dimensions of crust, mantle, and inner and outer core, and travel-time curves for various seismic waves to provide data on the characteristics of the individual layers);
SES4U.D.3.6: design and construct a working model of a seismograph, and explain its use in recording earthquake activity;
SES4U.D.3.7: locate the epicentre of an earthquake, given the appropriate seismographic data (e.g., the travel-time curves to three recording stations for a single event);
SES4U.D.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SES4U.D.4.1: describe methods of monitoring and predicting earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions;
SES4U.D.4.2: describe and explain how the development of the seismograph has contributed to a better understanding of the internal structure of the Earth;
SES4U.D.4.4: identify and describe engineering and technological innovations and adaptations (e.g., in building design, highway construction, emergency services) resulting from the impact of earthquake activity on human populations;
SES4U.D.4.5: describe the underlying assumptions and the limitations of predictions of earthquake activity, and assess the implications of such predictions for populations in Canada and around the world;
SES4U.D.4.6: identify major areas of tectonic activity in the world (e.g., Japan - convergent margin; Iceland - divergent margin; California - transform fault), drawing on information about the relationship between earthquakes, volcanoes, and plate boundaries (e.g., plot on a world map, for a given time period, the locations of recorded earthquakes and active volcanoes);
SES4U.E.1: Overall Expectations
SES4U.E.1.2: analyse and assess geological evidence that suggests that life forms, climate, continental positions, and the Earth's crust have changed over time;
SES4U.E.1.3: explain the importance of the geological and fossil records for our understanding of the Earth's history, and describe their use in related economic activities.
SES4U.E.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SES4U.E.2.2: describe and explain the various methods of isotopic age determination, giving for each the name of the isotope, its half-life, its effective dating range, and some of the materials (e.g., minerals and rocks) that it can be used to date;
SES4U.E.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SES4U.E.3.2: investigate and analyse various types of preserved geological evidence of changes that have taken place in Earth history (e.g., past glaciations, tectonic activity, plate movement);
SES4U.E.3.3: demonstrate an understanding of the evolution of life, as revealed through fossil analysis;
SES4U.E.3.6: investigate radioactive decay and the concept of half-life determination (e.g., design a simple, safe experiment that provides a model of half-life decay of radioactive elements);
SES4U.E.3.7: analyse the evidence used to determine the age of the Earth (e.g., radiometric dating of geological materials), and outline the historical evolution of attempts to establish the Earth's chronology.
SES4U.E.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SES4U.E.4.3: demonstrate an understanding of the importance of fossils in the petroleum and mining industries as tools for biostratigraphic correlation and as indicators of depositional environments;
SPH4U.A.1: Overall Expectations
SPH4U.A.1.1: analyse the motion of objects in horizontal, vertical, and inclined planes, and predict and explain the motion with reference to the forces acting on the objects;
SPH4U.A.1.2: investigate motion in a plane, through experiments or simulations, and analyse and solve problems involving the forces acting on an object in linear, projectile, and circular motion, with the aid of vectors, graphs, and free-body diagrams;
SPH4U.A.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4U.A.2.2: analyse and predict, in quantitative terms, and explain the linear motion of objects in horizontal, vertical, and inclined planes;
SPH4U.A.2.3: analyse and predict, in quantitative terms, and explain the motion of a projectile with respect to the horizontal and vertical components of its motion;
SPH4U.A.2.4: analyse and predict, in quantitative terms, and explain uniform circular motion in the horizontal and vertical planes with reference to the forces involved;
SPH4U.A.2.5: distinguish between inertial and accelerating (non-inertial) frames of reference, and predict velocity and acceleration in a variety of situations;
SPH4U.A.2.6: describe Newton's law of universal gravitation, apply it quantitatively, and use it to explain planetary and satellite motion.
SPH4U.A.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SPH4U.A.3.1: analyse experimental data, using vectors, graphs, trigonometry, and the resolution of vectors into perpendicular components, to determine the net force acting on an object and its resulting motion;
SPH4U.A.3.3: predict the motion of an object, and then design and conduct an experiment to test the prediction (e.g., verify predictions for such quantities as the time of flight, range, and maximum height of a projectile);
SPH4U.A.3.4: investigate, through experimentation, the relationships among centripetal acceleration, radius of orbit, and the period and frequency of an object in uniform circular motion; analyse the relationships in quantitative terms; and display the relationships using a graph.
SPH4U.A.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SPH4U.A.4.1: describe, or construct prototypes of, technologies based on the concepts and principles related to projectile and circular motion (e.g., construct a model of an amusement park ride and explain the scientific principles that underlie its design; explain, using scientific concepts and principles, how a centrifuge separates the components of blood);
SPH4U.A.4.2: analyse the principles of dynamics and describe, with reference to these principles, how the motion of human beings, objects, and vehicles can be modified (e.g., analyse the physics of throwing a baseball; analyse the frictional forces acting on objects and explain how the control of these forces has been used to modify the design of objects such as skis and car tires).
SPH4U.B.1: Overall Expectations
SPH4U.B.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of work, energy, momentum, and the laws of conservation of energy and of momentum for objects moving in two dimensions, and explain them in qualitative and quantitative terms;
SPH4U.B.1.2: investigate the laws of conservation of momentum and of energy (including elastic and inelastic collisions) through experiments or simulations, and analyse and solve problems involving these laws with the aid of vectors, graphs, and free-body diagrams;
SPH4U.B.1.3: analyse and describe the application of the concepts of energy and momentum to the design and development of a wide range of collision and impact-absorbing devices used in everyday life.
SPH4U.B.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4U.B.2.1: define and describe the concepts and units related to momentum and energy (e.g., momentum, impulse, work-energy theorem, gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, thermal energy and its transfer [heat], elastic collision, inelastic collision, open and closed energy systems, simple harmonic motion);
SPH4U.B.2.2: analyse, with the aid of vector diagrams, the linear momentum of a collection of objects, and apply quantitatively the law of conservation of linear momentum;
SPH4U.B.2.3: analyse situations involving the concepts of mechanical energy, thermal energy and its transfer (heat), and the laws of conservation of momentum and of energy;
SPH4U.B.2.4: distinguish between elastic and inelastic collisions;
SPH4U.B.2.5: analyse and explain common situations involving work and energy, using the work-energy theorem;
SPH4U.B.2.6: analyse the factors affecting the motion of isolated celestial objects, and calculate the gravitational potential energy for each system, as required;
SPH4U.B.2.7: analyse isolated planetary and satellite motion and describe it in terms of the forms of energy and energy transformations that occur (e.g., calculate the energy required to propel a spaceship from the Earth's surface out of the Earth's gravitational field, and describe the energy transformations that take place; calculate the kinetic and gravitational potential energy of a satellite that is in a stable circular orbit around a planet);
SPH4U.B.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SPH4U.B.3.1: investigate the laws of conservation of momentum and of energy in one and two dimensions by carrying out experiments or simulations and the necessary analytical procedures (e.g., use vector diagrams to determine whether the collisions of pucks on an air table are elastic or inelastic);
SPH4U.B.3.2: design and conduct an experiment to verify the conservation of energy in a system involving kinetic energy, thermal energy and its transfer (heat), and gravitational and elastic potential energy (e.g., design and conduct an experiment to verify Hooke's law; develop criteria to specify the design, and analyse the effectiveness, through experimentation, of an "egg-drop" container).
SPH4U.B.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SPH4U.B.4.1: analyse and describe, using the concepts and laws of energy and of momentum, practical applications of energy transformations and momentum conservation (e.g., analyse and describe the operation of a shock absorber, and outline the energy transformations that take place; analyse and explain, using scientific concepts and principles, the design of protective equipment developed for recreational and sports activities; research and explain the workings of a clock);
SPH4U.C.1: Overall Expectations
SPH4U.C.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of the concepts, principles, and laws related to electric, gravitational, and magnetic forces and fields, and explain them in qualitative and quantitative terms;
SPH4U.C.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4U.C.2.2: state Coulomb's law and Newton's law of universal gravitation, and analyse and compare them in qualitative terms;
SPH4U.C.2.3: apply Coulomb's law and Newton's law of universal gravitation quantitatively in specific contexts;
SPH4U.C.2.5: apply quantitatively the concept of electric potential energy in a variety of contexts, and compare the characteristics of electric potential energy with those of gravitational potential energy;
SPH4U.C.2.6: analyse in quantitative terms, and illustrate using field and vector diagrams, the electric field and the electric forces produced by a single point charge, two point charges, and two oppositely charged parallel plates (e.g., analyse, using vector diagrams, the electric force required to balance the gravitational force on an oil drop or on latex spheres between parallel plates);
SPH4U.C.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SPH4U.C.3.1: determine the net force on, and resulting motion of, objects and charged particles by collecting, analysing, and interpreting quantitative data from experiments or computer simulations involving electric, gravitational, and magnetic fields (e.g., calculate the charge on an electron, using experimentally collected data; conduct an experiment to verify Coulomb's law and analyse discrepancies between theoretical and empirical values);
SPH4U.D.1: Overall Expectations
SPH4U.D.1.2: perform experiments relating the wave model of light and technical applications of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., lasers and fibre optics) to the phenomena of refraction, diffraction, interference, and polarization;
SPH4U.D.1.3: analyse phenomena involving light and colour, explain them in terms of the wave model of light, and explain how this model provides a basis for developing technological devices.
SPH4U.D.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4U.D.2.1: define and explain the concepts and units related to the wave nature of light (e.g., diffraction, dispersion, wave interference, polarization, electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic spectrum);
SPH4U.D.2.3: describe the phenomenon of wave interference as it applies to light in qualitative and quantitative terms, using diagrams and sketches;
SPH4U.D.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SPH4U.D.3.2: identify the interference pattern produced by the diffraction of light through narrow slits (single and double slits) and diffraction gratings, and analyse it in qualitative and quantitative terms;
SPH4U.D.3.4: analyse and interpret experimental evidence indicating that light has some characteristics and properties that are similar to those of mechanical waves and sound.
SPH4U.D.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SPH4U.D.4.2: describe and explain the design and operation of technologies related to electromagnetic radiation (e.g., describe the scientific principles that underlie Polaroid filters for enhancing photographic images; describe how information is stored and retrieved using compact discs and laser beams);
SPH4U.D.4.3: analyse, using the concepts of refraction, diffraction, and wave interference, the separation of light into colours in various phenomena (e.g., the colours produced by thin films), which forms the basis for the design of technological devices (e.g., the grating spectroscope).
SPH4U.E.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4U.E.2.1: define and describe the concepts and units related to the present-day understanding of the nature of the atom and elementary particles (e.g., radioactivity, quantum theory, photoelectric effect, matter waves, mass-energy equivalence);
SPH4U.E.2.2: describe the principal forms of nuclear decay and compare the properties of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays in terms of mass, charge, speed, penetrating power, and ionizing ability;
SPH4U.E.2.3: describe the photoelectric effect in terms of the quantum energy concept, and outline the experimental evidence that supports a particle model of light;
SPH4U.E.2.4: describe and explain in qualitative terms the Bohr model of the (hydrogen) atom as a synthesis of classical and early quantum mechanics;
SPH4U.E.2.7: describe the Standard Model of elementary particles in terms of the characteristic properties of quarks, leptons, and bosons, and identify the quarks that form familiar particles such as the proton and neutron.
SPH4U.E.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SPH4U.E.3.1: collect and interpret experimental data in support of a scientific theory (e.g., conduct an experiment, or view prepared slides, to analyse how the emission spectrum of hydrogen supports Bohr's predicted transition states in his model of the atom);
SPH4U.E.3.3: analyse images of the trajectories of elementary particles to determine the mass-versus-charge ratio;
SPH4U.E.3.4: compile, organize, and display data related to the nature of the atom and elementary particles, using appropriate formats and treatments (e.g., using experimental data or simulations, determine and display the half-lives for radioactive decay of isotopes used in carbon dating or in medical treatments).
SPH4U.E.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SPH4U.E.4.1: outline the historical development of scientific views and models of matter and energy, from Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom to present-day theories of atomic structure (e.g., construct a concept map of scientific ideas that have been developed since Bohr's model, and outline how these ideas are synthesized in the Standard Model);
SPH4C.A.1: Overall Expectations
SPH4C.A.1.1: describe and apply concepts related to forces, Newton's laws of motion, static and kinetic friction, simple machines, torques, and mechanical advantage;
SPH4C.A.1.2: design and carry out experiments to investigate forces, coefficients of friction, and the operation of simple machines;
SPH4C.A.1.3: identify and analyse applications of applied forces, friction, and simple machines in real-world machines and in the human body.
SPH4C.A.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4C.A.2.1: define and describe the concepts and units related to force, coefficients of friction, torque, mechanical advantage, and work;
SPH4C.A.2.2: state Newton's laws of motion, and apply them to mechanical systems (e.g., identify and explain the conditions associated with the movement of objects at constant velocity);
SPH4C.A.2.3: analyse, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the forces (e.g., gravitational forces, applied forces, friction forces) acting on an object in a variety of situations, and describe the resulting motion of the object;
SPH4C.A.2.4: identify, describe, and illustrate applications of types of simple machines, that is, the inclined plane and the lever, and modifications of these (the wedge, the screw, the pulley, and the wheel and axle);
SPH4C.A.2.5: apply quantitatively the relationships among torque, force, and displacement in simple machines;
SPH4C.A.2.6: state the law of the lever, and apply it quantitatively in a variety of situations for all three classes of levers;
SPH4C.A.2.7: explain the operation and mechanical advantage of simple machines;
SPH4C.A.2.8: determine the mechanical advantage of a variety of compound machines and bio-mechanical systems.
SPH4C.A.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SPH4C.A.3.1: verify Newton's second law of motion through experimentation;
SPH4C.A.3.2: determine, through experimentation, the factors affecting static and dynamic friction and the corresponding coefficients of friction;
SPH4C.A.3.3: select appropriate instruments and use them effectively and accurately in investigating the relationships among force, displacement, and torque for the load arm and effort arm of levers;
SPH4C.A.3.4: analyse, in quantitative terms, a mechanical system with respect to its component simple machines, input and output forces, and mechanical advantage (e.g., determine the mechanical advantage of the simple machines in a bicycle);
SPH4C.A.3.5: construct a simple or compound machine to solve a practical problem, and determine its mechanical advantage (e.g., design and construct a prototype of a machine for lifting a patient from a hospital bed, calculate the mechanical advantage of each of the simple machines used in the device, and explain the operation of each simple machine).
SPH4C.A.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SPH4C.A.4.1: describe advantages and disadvantages of friction in real-world situations, as well as methods used to increase or reduce friction in these situations (e.g., advantages of, and methods for increasing, friction on the surface of car tires and the soles of mountain-climbing boots; disadvantages of, and methods for reducing, friction between moving parts on industrial machines, and on wheels spinning on axles);
SPH4C.A.4.2: describe the role of machines in everyday domestic life and in industry (e.g., identify simple machines that are part of a device used in the home, and explain the function of each machine; explain the function of the simple machines used in one of the following: robotics equipment, pulley systems, lever systems on backhoes, bulldozers, winches, the "Canadarm");
SPH4C.A.4.3: analyse natural and technological systems that employ the principles of simple machines, and explain their function and structure (e.g., analyse the operation of the human arm in terms of the operation of a lever).
SPH4C.B.1: Overall Expectations
SPH4C.B.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of common applications of electrical and electronic circuits, and the function and configuration of the components used;
SPH4C.B.1.2: construct, analyse, and troubleshoot simple electrical circuits by using schematic diagrams and appropriate electrical tools and measuring equipment, and by examining familiar electrical devices;
SPH4C.B.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4C.B.2.1: define and describe the concepts and units related to electrical and electronic systems (e.g., direct current, alternating current, electric potential, resistance, power, energy);
SPH4C.B.2.4: analyse and describe the operation of electrical and electronic devices that control other systems (e.g., programmable thermostats, control switches for fans or pumps, logic circuits, security systems, smoke detectors);
SPH4C.B.2.5: analyse, in quantitative terms, circuit problems involving potential difference, current, and resistance;
SPH4C.B.2.6: distinguish between, and explain the functions of, analog and digital circuits (e.g., identify one device that requires an analog circuit to function - audio amplifier, audio-tape recorder - and another that requires a digital circuit - computer data storage device, alarm circuit, compact disc [CD] recording, digital video disc [DVD] - and explain why each kind of circuit is used);
SPH4C.B.2.7: describe examples of electrical sub-circuits that are micro-miniaturized and used as "black boxes" that serve a particular purpose in electronic equipment (e.g., identify and describe the function of a computer central processing unit [CPU] and a "smart" telephone card).
SPH4C.B.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SPH4C.B.3.1: use appropriate meters (analog or digital), computer probes, and oscilloscopes to measure electric potential difference, current, and resistance in electrical circuits;
SPH4C.B.3.2: construct simple electrical circuits using common tools appropriately and safely (e.g., soldering irons, wire strippers, crimping tools, screwdrivers, common connectors);
SPH4C.B.3.5: design and construct an electrical circuit to perform a simple function (e.g., perimeter security system, water-level detector), and evaluate it on the basis of specified criteria;
SPH4C.B.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SPH4C.B.4.1: describe common applications of simple circuits, and identify the energy transformations that occur (e.g., energy transformations in one of the following appliances or devices: refrigerator, kettle, food mixer, amplifier, television set, light bulb, oscillator, electromagnet, electric motor, garage door opener);
SPH4C.B.4.3: identify and describe proper safety procedures to be used when working with electrical circuits, and identify electrical hazards that may occur in the science classroom or at home.
SPH4C.C.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4C.C.2.1: define and describe the concepts and units related to fluids and to hydraulic and pneumatic systems (e.g., density, atmospheric pressure, absolute pressure, laminar and turbulent flow, static pressure head, pressure, volume, flow rate);
SPH4C.C.2.7: apply quantitatively the relationships among force, area, pressure, volume, and time in hydraulic and pneumatic systems (e.g., calculate the force exerted by the hydraulically operated brake pad on the wheel of a motorcycle or car; calculate the time required for a robotic system to complete one cycle of operation);
SPH4C.C.2.8: analyse, in quantitative terms, the relationships among work, power, and time in hydraulic and pneumatic circuits.
SPH4C.D.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4C.D.2.1: define and explain the concepts and units related to communications technology (e.g., frequency, period, cycle, wavelength, amplitude, longitudinal and transverse waves, electromagnetic waves, reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, interference, transmission, absorption);
SPH4C.D.2.2: describe the periodic motion of a vibrating object in qualitative terms, and analyse it in quantitative terms (e.g., the motion of a pendulum, a vibrating spring, a tuning fork);
SPH4C.D.2.3: describe the characteristics of waves, and analyse, in quantitative terms, the relationships among velocity, frequency, and wavelength to explain the behaviour of waves in different media;
SPH4C.D.2.4: explain and illustrate the principle of superposition of waves (e.g., explain the sound produced by a musical instrument in terms of its fundamental frequency and the associated overtones, and draw diagrams to show the relationships between them);
SPH4C.D.2.5: describe how the interference of waves is used in communications technology;
SPH4C.D.2.6: explain, in qualitative terms, and illustrate how the reflection of waves is used in communications technology (e.g., in loudspeaker enclosures, police radar, communications satellites, parabolic reflectors);
SPH4C.D.2.7: explain and predict, in quantitative terms and with the use of Snell's law, the refraction of electromagnetic waves;
SPH4C.D.2.8: describe and illustrate total internal reflection, and explain its significance in communications systems;
SPH4C.D.2.9: analyse and describe the sequences of energy transformations and transmissions that occur in commonly used communications systems (e.g., analyse and describe the function of each of the energy transformations that occur in a sound system, a video camera, a video cassette recorder [VCR], and a television set).
SPH4C.D.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SPH4C.D.3.1: determine, through experimentation, the properties of and the relationships among the major variables for a vibrating object (e.g., conduct an experiment to determine the factors that affect the frequency of a pendulum);
SPH4C.D.3.2: investigate, through experimentation or the use of computer simulations, the characteristics of transverse and longitudinal mechanical waves (e.g., conduct experiments, using slinkies, springs, wave machines, ripple tanks);
SPH4C.D.3.3: demonstrate and explain the principle of superposition (e.g., explain the production of standing waves, overtones in musical instruments, beats in sound waves, amplitude and frequency modulation in radio waves);
SPH4C.D.3.4: verify Snell's law through experimentation, and identify the conditions required for total internal reflection;
SPH4C.D.3.5: investigate the reflection and refraction of light through experimentation, and interpret results using algebraic and geometric models (e.g., investigate reflection of light from differently shaped surfaces, refraction of light in different media, and total internal reflection);
SPH4C.D.3.6: analyse, in qualitative terms, the operation of simple transducers used in communications systems or in information-processing equipment (e.g., in microphones, loudspeakers, tape recorder heads, remote controllers, product code readers), and describe the energy transformations that occur;
SPH4C.D.3.7: design and construct a simple communications system, and demonstrate the operation of each of the major components in the system (e.g., design and construct a simple house intercom system).
SPH4C.E.1: Overall Expectations
SPH4C.E.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of forms of energy, energy sources, energy transformations, energy losses, and efficiency, and the operation of common energy-transforming devices;
SPH4C.E.1.2: construct or investigate devices that involve energy sources, energy transformations, and energy losses, and assess their efficiency;
SPH4C.E.1.3: analyse and describe the operation of various technologies based on energy transfers and transformations, and evaluate the potential of energy-transformation technologies that use sources of renewable energy.
SPH4C.E.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SPH4C.E.2.1: define and describe the concepts and units related to energy transformations (e.g., energy, forms of energy, power, efficiency);
SPH4C.E.2.2: describe and compare various energy transformations (e.g., describe energy transformations among mechanical, sound, thermal, electromagnetic, gravitational, and nuclear forms of energy);
SPH4C.E.2.3: describe, with the aid of diagrams, the operation of energy-transforming devices (e.g., electric motors and generators, heat engines, photoelectric cells, electrochemical cells);
SPH4C.E.2.4: analyse and describe, using energy flow diagrams, the relationships among and efficiencies of various energy sources (e.g., the sun, natural gas, oil, coal, moving water), transformations (e.g., between thermal energy and its transfer [heat] and electrical energy), transmissions (e.g., of electrical energy), and energy losses (e.g., of electrical energy as a result of resistance);
SPH4C.E.2.5: determine, in quantitative terms, the power and efficiency of energy transformations in some common devices (e.g., electric motor, internal combustion engine, incandescent light bulb, fluorescent light bulb).
SPH4C.E.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SPH4C.E.3.1: determine, through experimentation, the efficiency of a simple process of energy transformation (e.g., a rubber band stretched to propel a cart through photogates; an electric motor used to lift a mass);
SPH4C.E.3.2: collaboratively design and build a device that uses at least four functional energy transformations to complete a task (e.g., an alarm system for a house), and explain its operation.
SPH4C.E.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SPH4C.E.4.1: analyse and describe examples of technologies based on various combinations of energy transfer and transformation (e.g., a shock absorber, a vehicular airbag, a Mars landing system);
SNC4M.A.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SNC4M.A.2.2: compare the properties and structures of inorganic and organic substances (e.g., draw diagrams to show the similarities and differences between inorganic and organic molecules);
SNC4M.A.2.3: explain the scientific principles involved in the making and use of soaps and detergents (e.g., the principles of bonding related to the making of detergents);
SNC4M.A.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SNC4M.A.3.1: illustrate the relationship between the structure and function of various organic products by constructing for each a simple model of its molecule and identifying its active parts (e.g., draw and label a diagram of a soap molecule, including its hydrophylic and hydrophobic parts);
SNC4M.B.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SNC4M.B.4.3: research and explain the impact on disease control of technological advances in food preparation and preservation (e.g., the impact of freezing, pasteurization, radiation, and canning on food marketing);
SNC4M.C.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SNC4M.C.2.1: define, with examples when appropriate, terms such as: joule, rad, watt, fission, fusion, chain reaction, activation energy, renewable/non-renewable resources, conventional/alternative energy sources;
SNC4M.C.2.4: compare the relative amounts of energy released in various physical, chemical, and nuclear transformations (e.g., create charts to compare the energy released in condensation of water vapour, combustion of gasoline, and splitting of the atom);
SNC4M.C.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SNC4M.C.4.5: evaluate the suitability of alternative energy sources, using research into the regional availability of natural resources in Canada (e.g., draw a correlation map for Canada showing regional energy systems and the distribution of natural resources, including water, fossil fuels, heat sinks, and wind and tides).
SNC4M.D.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SNC4M.D.2.1: define, with examples when appropriate, terms such as: wave, wavelength, frequency, semi-conductor, electromagnetic spectrum, fibre optic cabling;
SNC4M.D.2.8: explain the energy transformations that take place to permit the transmission and reception of signals in communications systems;
SNC4M.D.2.9: describe how sound energy is received, analysed, and reproduced electronically (e.g., energy transformations in the functioning of a microphone).
SNC4M.D.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SNC4M.D.3.3: design, construct, and test a simple device that transforms energy (e.g., sound, light) from one form to another (e.g., design, construct, and test a prototype of a photovoltaic cell, loudspeaker, or doorbell);
SNC4E.A.1: Overall Expectations
SNC4E.A.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and reactions of common organic materials encountered in the home and workplace;
SNC4E.A.1.2: investigate the properties of some organic substances, and safely prepare a number of common organic products and emulsions;
SNC4E.A.1.3: describe the importance of common organic substances used in the home and workplace, and demonstrate an awareness of some of the health, safety, economic, and environmental issues related to the use of these substances.
SNC4E.A.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SNC4E.A.2.1: illustrate and explain the formation of covalent bonds, especially those involving H, C, N, and O;
SNC4E.A.2.3: predict, on the basis of the affinity of substances with similar chemical properties, the solubility of common organic substances in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents (e.g., polar and ionic substances are generally soluble in polar solvents; non-polar substances are generally soluble in non-polar solvents);
SNC4E.A.2.5: write word equations for simple condensation and hydrolysis reactions;
SNC4E.A.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SNC4E.A.3.5: safely prepare some common organic products by the processes of emulsion, condensation, hydrolysis, and polymerization (e.g., cold cream, mayonnaise, aspirin/ASA, or soap);
SNC4E.A.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SNC4E.A.4.1: research an important application of condensation, hydrolysis, or emulsification processes, and report on their findings using an appropriate format (e.g., the industrial or home preparation of an emulsified food or cosmetic product, such as salad dressing, skin cream, or lipstick; the important role of condensation and hydrolysis reactions in the synthesis and digestion of major molecules in living organisms);
SNC4E.B.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SNC4E.B.2.1: describe and illustrate the properties of a vibrating object, and explain how vibrating objects (e.g., drums, guitar strings, wave-making machines in theme parks) produce waves;
SNC4E.B.2.2: explain in qualitative terms how frequency, amplitude, and wave shape affect the pitch, intensity, and quality of notes produced by musical instruments;
SNC4E.B.2.3: describe and compare the properties of transverse and longitudinal waves;
SNC4E.B.2.4: explain how different forms of energy can be transformed into, and transmitted as, waves (e.g., mechanical energy to sound energy; electrical energy to electromagnetic energy);
SNC4E.B.2.5: describe and explain in qualitative terms what happens when waves interact (interfere) with one another (e.g., production of beats, or of voice patterns on an oscilloscope);
SNC4E.B.2.6: explain, in terms of the properties of waves, how energy from communications devices is transmitted, reflected, and absorbed by different kinds of matter (e.g., how devices such as motion detectors, cordless telephones, and television remote controls work);
SNC4E.B.2.7: describe in qualitative terms, with examples, the effects produced by the refraction and total internal reflection of visible light waves as they pass through different transparent media, and explain how these effects are applied in various entertainment and communications devices (e.g., the function of lenses and prisms in a television camera);
SNC4E.B.2.8: examine and describe the operation of transducers that carry out the energy transformations in common communications equipment (e.g., explain how transducers work in microphones, photocells, aerials and antennas, earphones, loudspeakers, product code readers, or television screens).
SNC4E.B.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SNC4E.B.3.1: formulate scientific questions about waves (e.g., What are the properties of longitudinal and transverse waves? What happens when two identical periodic waves travelling in opposite directions interact?);
SNC4E.B.3.2: determine experimentally the relationships among the major variables for a vibrating object (e.g., carry out an investigation to determine the relationships among the length of a string pendulum and the frequency and period of its vibration);
SNC4E.B.3.3: estimate the value of some wave-related quantities (e.g., the period and frequency of a string pendulum; the note produced by a musical instrument; the intensity of a sound in decibels; the distance from an observer to the location of a bolt of lightning);
SNC4E.B.3.5: conduct investigations to analyse and explain the production of sound by a vibrating object (e.g., how different string or wind instruments produce notes);
SNC4E.C.1: Overall Expectations
SNC4E.C.1.1: demonstrate an understanding of the role of genetics and of various technologies, including biotechnology, in the diagnosis and treatment of human illness;
SNC4E.C.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SNC4E.C.2.1: demonstrate an understanding of terms related to medical and reproductive technology (e.g., cloning, genetic engineering, heredity, karyotype, pedigree);
SNC4E.C.2.2: explain the use of technology for diagnostic medical applications (e.g., the use of lasers, ultrasound, computer axial tomography [CAT] scans, doppler scans, X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], fibre optics);
SNC4E.C.2.4: describe and illustrate the role of chromosomes in the transmission of hereditary information from one cell to another, and explain how genetic disorders may occur;
SNC4E.C.2.5: describe the use of karyotypes and pedigrees as diagnostic tools for determining genetic diseases (e.g., analyse the karyotypes or pedigree from the case study of a person having Down syndrome);
SNC4E.C.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SNC4E.C.3.2: state a hypothesis and make predictions, based on available evidence and background information, concerning a particular medical problem (e.g., analyse a pedigree or karyotype for a genetic disorder).
SNC4E.D.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SNC4E.D.4.3: demonstrate an understanding of the role of forests as essential habitats for other plants and animals, including threatened and endangered species (e.g., describe the environmental, economic, and social effects of various types of forestry practice, such as clear-cut forestry or sustainable forestry using selective cutting);
SNC4E.E.1: Overall Expectations
SNC4E.E.1.1: demonstrate a knowledge of the inputs, outputs, and interactions involved in maintaining an alternative life-sustaining environment;
SNC4E.E.1.2: analyse major variables that affect the various inputs, outputs, and interactions involved in maintaining an alternative life-sustaining environment;
SNC4E.E.1.3: demonstrate an understanding of what would be required to equip and operate an alternative environment capable of supporting human life, and compare its sustainability to that of our normal planetary environment.
SNC4E.E.2: Understanding Basic Concepts
SNC4E.E.2.2: describe the inputs of food, energy, air, and water needed to maintain an alternative life-sustaining environment;
SNC4E.E.2.3: identify the components of an alternative life-sustaining environment (e.g., source[s] of energy, atmosphere, means for recycling or disposing of waste), and describe how they must interact to be successful;
SNC4E.E.2.4: describe the outputs of an alternative life-sustaining environment, and the systems required to handle them (e.g., air filtration systems);
SNC4E.E.2.5: describe the difficulties facing humans living in a weightless self-supporting environment (e.g., the difficulties of reducing human waste).
SNC4E.E.3: Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication
SNC4E.E.3.1: determine, through experimentation, the different factors affecting a controlled micro-environment (e.g., the factors affecting a yeast suspension, a fruit-fly culture, an aquarium, or a terrarium);
SNC4E.E.3.2: formulate scientific questions about the nature of alternative life-sustaining environments (e.g., What becomes of the waste produced in an alternative environment?);
SNC4E.E.3.3: use flow charts to diagram the inputs, outputs, and interactions of the various life-sustaining components of an alternative environment (e.g., energy flow, waste disposal, atmosphere).
SNC4E.E.4: Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment
SNC4E.E.4.1: analyse, using knowledge of the requirements for sustainability, existing alternative life-sustaining environments (e.g., International Space Station, Earth-based self-sustaining biodome experiments, nuclear submarines, off-shore oil rigs), and make suggestions for their improvement or development;
SNC4E.E.4.2: assess a Canadian contribution to the development of alternative life-sustaining environments (e.g., gather, integrate, and analyse information about the Montreal Biodome);
SNC4E.E.4.3: relate what they have learned about sustaining life in alternative environments to the processes through which our own natural environment sustains life (e.g., relate the mechanical processes of an air purification system to the natural process of air purification by trees);
SNC4E.E.4.4: analyse the costs and benefits to society, the economy, and the environment of constructing and operating an alternative environment capable of supporting human life (e.g., write a brief essay on the potential economic benefits of maintaining an alternative life-sustaining environment such as the International Space Station).
Correlation last revised: 2/2/2010