### A: Students use numbers in everyday and mathematical contexts to quantify or describe phenomena, develop concepts of operations with different types of numbers, use the structure and properties of numbers with operations to solve problems, and perform mathematical computations. Students develop number sense related to magnitude, estimation, and the effects of mathematical operations on different types of numbers. It is expected that students use numbers flexibly, using forms of numbers that best match a situation. Students compute efficiently and accurately. Estimation should always be used when computing with numbers or solving problems.

#### A.1: Students know how to represent and use real numbers.

A.1.b: Estimate the value(s) of roots and use technology to approximate them.

A.1.c: Compute using laws of exponents.

A.1.d: Multiply and divide numbers expressed in scientific notation.

A.1.e: Understand that some quadratic equations do not have real solutions and that there exist other number systems to allow for solutions to these equations.

### B: Students make measurements and collect, display, evaluate, analyze, and compute with data to describe or model phenomena and to make decisions based on data. Students compute statistics to summarize data sets and use concepts of probability to make predictions and describe the uncertainty inherent in data collection and measurement. It is expected that when working with measurements students: understand that most measurements are approximations and that taking repeated measurements reveals this variability; understand that a number without a unit is not a measurement, and that an appropriate unit must always be attached to a number to provide a measurement; understand that the precision and accuracy of a measurement depends on selecting the appropriate tools and units; and use estimation comparing measures to benchmarks appropriate to the type of measure and units.

#### B.2: Students understand correlation and cause and effect.

B.2.a: Recognize when correlation has been confused with cause and effect.

B.2.b: Create and interpret scatter plots and estimate correlation and lines of best fit.

B.2.c: Recognize positive and negative correlations based on data from a table or scatter plot.

B.2.d: Estimate the strength of correlation based upon a scatter plot.

#### B.3: Students understand and know how to describe distributions and find and use descriptive statistics for a set of data.

B.3.a: Find and apply range, quartiles, mean absolute deviation, and standard deviation (using technology) of a set of data.

B.3.b: Interpret, give examples of, and describe key differences among different types of distributions: uniform, normal, and skewed.

B.3.c: For the sample mean of normal distributions, use the standard deviation for a group of observations to establish 90%, 95%, or 99% confidence intervals.

#### B.4: Students understand that the purpose of random sampling is to reduce bias when creating a representative sample for a set of data.

B.4.a: Describe and account for the difference between sample statistics and statistics describing the distribution of the entire population.

B.4.b: Recognize that sample statistics produce estimates for the distribution of an entire population and recognize that larger sample sizes will produce more reliable estimates.

B.4.c: Apply methods of creating random samples and recognize possible sources of bias in samples.

#### B.5: Students understand the relationship of probability to relative frequency and know how to find the probability of compound events.

B.5.b: Find the expected value of events.

B.5.c: Find the probability of compound events including independent and dependent events.

### C: Students use measurement and observation to describe objects based on their sizes and shapes; model or construct two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects; solve problems involving geometric properties; compute areas and volumes based on object properties and dimensions; and perform transformations on geometric figures. When making or calculating measures students use estimation to check the reasonableness of results.

#### C.1: Students justify statements about polygons and solve problems.

C.1.a: Use the properties of triangles to prove theorems about figures and relationships among figures.

C.1.c: Use the Pythagorean Theorem in situations where right triangles are created by adding segments to figures.

C.1.d: Use the distance formula.

#### C.2: Students justify statements about circles and solve problems.

C.2.a: Use the concepts of central and inscribed angles to solve problems and justify statements.

#### C.3: Students understand and use basic ideas of trigonometry.

C.3.a: Identify and find the value of trigonometric ratios for angles in right triangles.

C.3.b: Use trigonometry to solve for missing lengths in right triangles.

#### C.4: Students find the surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects.

C.4.a: Find the volume and surface area of three-dimensional figures including cones and spheres.

C.4.b: Determine the effect of changes in linear dimensions on the volume and surface area of similar and other three-dimensional figures.

### D: Students use symbols to represent or model quantities, patterns, and relationships and use symbolic manipulation to evaluate expressions and solve equations. Students solve problems using symbols, tables, graphs, and verbal rules choosing the most effective representation and converting among representations.

#### D.1: Students understand and use polynomials and expressions with rational exponents.

D.1.a: Simplify expressions including those with rational exponents.

D.1.b: Add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.

D.1.c: Factor the common term out of polynomial expressions.

D.1.d: Divide polynomials by (ax+b).

#### D.2: Students solve families of equations and inequalities.

D.2.a: Solve systems of linear equations and inequalities in two unknowns and interpret their graphs.

D.2.b: Solve quadratic equations graphically, by factoring in cases where factoring is efficient, and by applying the quadratic formula.

D.2.d: Solve absolute value equations and inequalities and interpret the results.

D.2.e: Apply the understanding that the solution(s) to equations of the form f(x) = g(x) are the x-value(s) of the point(s) of intersection of the graphs of f(x) and g(x) and common outputs in table of values.

D.2.f: Explain why the coordinates of the point of intersection of the lines represented by a system of equations is its solution and apply this understanding to solving problems.

#### D.4: Students understand and interpret the characteristics of functions using graphs, tables, and algebraic techniques.

D.4.a: Recognize the graphs and sketch graphs of the basic functions

D.4.a.2: f(x) = ax_ + bx + c ;

D.4.a.3: f(x) = square root of x ;

D.4.a.4: f(x) = |x| ;

D.4.a.6: f(x) = a to the x power ; and

D.4.a.7: f(x) = kx + b

D.4.c: Use concepts such as domain, range, zeros, intercepts, and maximum and minimum values.

D.4.d: Use the concepts of average rate of change (table of values) and increasing and decreasing over intervals, and use these characteristics to compare functions.

#### D.5: Students express relationships recursively and use iterative methods to solve problems.

D.5.a: Express the (n+1)st term in terms of the nth term and describe relationships in terms of a starting point and rule followed to transform one term to the next.

Correlation last revised: 5/11/2018

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