#### 4.1: The position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling.

4.1.a: The size of the change in an object’s motion is related to the strength of the push or pull.

4.1.a.5: When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another equal-sized force is counteracting the push or pull. Gravity (the earth’s pulling force) and friction are common forces that affect motion. Friction and air resistance are forces that oppose motion.

4.1.b: The more massive an object is, the less effect a given force will have on its motion.

4.1.b.2: The greater the object’s mass, the greater the force needed to move it, stop it or change its speed or direction.

#### 4.2: All organisms depend on the living and nonliving features of the environment for survival.

4.2.a: When the environment changes, some organisms survive and reproduce, and others die or move to new locations.

4.2.a.3: Plants use energy from the sun to produce their own food from air and water. The type of soil, amount of water and temperature range in an area determine the plants that grow there.

4.2.a.4: Animals that live in an area get their energy and nutrients either directly or indirectly from plants that grow there: herbivores consume only plants, carnivores consume animals, and omnivores consume both animals and plants. Decomposers consume plant and animal waste and remains, returning nutrients to the soil where they are used again by plants.

4.2.a.5: Some of the sun’s energy is transferred from one organism to another when a plant or animal is consumed by another animal. A food chain is a simple model that illustrates the passage of energy from one organism to another. Food webs are more realistic models that show the varied energy-passing relationships among plants and animals in an ecosystem.

#### 4.3: Water has a major role in shaping the earth's surface.

4.3.a: Water circulates through the earth's crust, oceans and atmosphere.

4.3.a.1: Water is continuously moving between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere in a process called the water cycle. Heat energy from the sun causes water on Earth to change to a gas and rise into the atmosphere, where it cools, condenses into tiny droplets in clouds, and eventually falls to Earth as precipitation.

#### 4.4: Electrical and magnetic energy can be transferred and transformed.

4.4.a: Electricity in circuits can be transformed into light, heat, sound and magnetic effects.

4.4.a.1: Electric current flows (is transferred) from an energy source (battery) through a continuous loop (circuit) and back to the source. A complete circuit (also called a closed circuit) forms a closed loop that allows electric current to flow; an incomplete circuit (also called an open circuit) has a break in the loop that prevents the flow of electric current.

4.4.a.2: Complete circuits can be made by connecting wires, batteries and bulbs in certain sequences. Circuits are completed only when certain parts of a battery, a bulb or a wire are touching (making contact). Circuit diagrams show the relative positions of batteries, bulbs and wires in complete circuits.

4.4.a.3: Conductors are materials that allow electric current to flow through them in an electric circuit. An open circuit can be completed by inserting a conductive material. If a bulb stays lit when an object is added to an electric circuit, the material is a conductor.

4.4.a.4: Insulators are materials that do not allow electric current to flow through them in an electric circuit. If a bulb does not stay lit when an object is added to an electric circuit, the material is an insulator.

4.4.a.5: Conductors can be tested to compare how easily they allow electricity to flow through them.

4.4.a.7: Adding batteries or bulbs to a circuit can produce observable changes.

4.4.b: Magnets can make objects move without direct contact between the object and the magnet.

4.4.b.2: Some areas of a magnet have stronger magnetic attraction than other areas.

4.4.b.3: Magnets can pull (attract) or push (repel) other magnets.

4.4.b.6: When a magnet, or a magnetized object such as a compass needle, is allowed to swing freely, its ends will point toward the earth’s magnetic north and south poles.

4.4.b.7: Magnets and electromagnets have many uses in everyday life. Examples may include paper clip containers, refrigerator door seals, shower curtain weights, or a compass.

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.