3.1: Materials have properties that can be identified and described through the use of simple tests.

3.1.a: Heating and cooling cause changes in some of the properties of materials.

3.1.a.1: Materials have properties that are directly observable; examples include its state of matter, or its size, shape, color or texture. Other properties can only be observed by doing something to the material (simple tests). Materials can be sorted and classified based on their testable properties.

Phases of Water

3.1.a.3: Some materials, such as sponges, papers and fabrics, absorb water better than others.

Color Absorption
Heat Absorption

3.1.a.4: Some materials float when placed in water (or other liquids such as cooking oil or maple syrup); others sink to the bottom of the container.


3.1.a.5: Some materials conduct heat better than others. Materials that are poor heat conductors are useful for keeping things cold or hot.

Conduction and Convection

3.1.a.8: Heating and cooling cause materials to change from one state of matter to another and back again. Adding heat can cause solids to melt into liquids (for example, chocolate, ice cream, butter or wax); removing heat (cooling) can cause liquids to harden into solids (for example, hot candle wax hardens as it cools).

Phases of Water

3.1.a.9: Adding heat can cause water to boil and evaporate into a gas in the air (for example, steam rises from heated water); removing heat (cooling) can cause water vapor to condense into liquid water (for example, warm steam hitting a cold mirror). Water outdoors or in an open container evaporates without boiling (for example, puddles, ponds, fish tanks, etc.)

Phases of Water

3.1.a.10: Water may exist as a solid, liquid or gas, depending on its temperature. If water is turned into ice and then the ice is allowed to melt, the amount of water is the same as it was before freezing.

Phases of Water

3.2: Organisms can survive and reproduce only in environments that meet their basic needs.

3.2.a: Plants and animals have structures and behaviors that help them survive in different environments.

3.2.a.6: Plants have adaptations for protection from predators. Examples include spines, thorns and toxins (for example, poison ivy).

Prairie Ecosystem

3.3: Earth materials have different physical and chemical properties.

3.3.a: Rocks and minerals have properties that may be identified through observation and testing; these properties determine how earth materials are used.

3.3.a.2: Rocks can be sorted based on properties, such as shape, size, color, weight or texture.

Mineral Identification

3.3.a.8: All rocks are made of materials called minerals that have properties that may be identified by testing. Mineral properties include color, odor, streak, luster, hardness and magnetism.

Mineral Identification

3.3.a.9: Minerals are used in many ways, depending on their properties. For example, gold is a mineral that is easily shaped to make jewelry; talc is a mineral that breaks into tiny grains useful for making powders.

Mineral Identification

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.