### 1: Students will understand how to measure, calculate, and describe the motion of an object in terms of position, time, velocity, and acceleration.

#### 1.1: Describe the motion of an object in terms of position, time, and velocity.

1.1.a: Calculate the average velocity of a moving object using data obtained from measurements of position of the object at two or more times.

1.1.d: Determine and compare the average and instantaneous velocity of an object from data showing its position at given times.

1.1.e: Collect, graph, and interpret data for position vs. time to describe the motion of an object and compare this motion to the motion of another object.

#### 1.2: Analyze the motion of an object in terms of velocity, time, and acceleration.

1.2.a: Determine the average acceleration of an object from data showing velocity at given times.

1.2.c: Collect, graph, and interpret data for velocity vs. time to describe the motion of an object.

1.2.d: Describe the acceleration of an object moving in a circular path at constant speed (i.e., constant speed, but changing direction).

1.2.e: Analyze the velocity and acceleration of an object over time.

#### 1.4: Use Newton's first law to explain the motion of an object.

1.4.a: Describe the motion of a moving object on which balanced forces are acting.

1.4.b: Describe the motion of a stationary object on which balanced forces are acting.

### 2: Students will understand the relation between force, mass, and acceleration.

#### 2.1: Analyze forces acting on an object.

2.1.d: Calculate the net force acting on an object.

#### 2.2: Using Newton?s second law, relate the force, mass, and acceleration of an object.

2.2.a: Determine the relationship between the net force on an object and the object?s acceleration.

2.2.b: Relate the effect of an object?s mass to its acceleration when an unbalanced force is applied.

2.2.c: Determine the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration from experimental data and compare the results to Newton?s second law.

2.2.d: Predict the combined effect of multiple forces (e.g., friction, gravity, and normal forces) on an object?s motion.

#### 2.3: Explain that forces act in pairs as described by Newton?s third law.

2.3.a: Identify pairs of forces (e.g., action-reaction, equal and opposite) acting between two objects (e.g., two electric charges, a book and the table it rests upon, a person and a rope being pulled).

### 3: Students will understand the factors determining the strength of gravitational and electric forces.

#### 3.1: Relate the strength of the gravitational force to the distance between two objects and the mass of the objects (i.e., Newton?s law of universal gravitation).

3.1.a: Investigate how mass affects the gravitational force (e.g., spring scale, balance, or other method of finding a relationship between mass and the gravitational force).

3.1.c: Describe how distance between objects affects the gravitational force (e.g., effect of gravitational forces of the moon and sun on objects on Earth).

3.1.d: Explain how evidence and inference are used to describe fundamental forces in nature, such as the gravitational force.

#### 3.2: Describe the factors that affect the electric force (i.e., Coulomb?s law).

3.2.b: Describe how the amount of charge affects the electric force.

3.2.c: Investigate the relationship of distance between charged objects and the strength of the electric force.

### 4: Students will understand transfer and conservation of energy.

#### 4.1: Determine kinetic and potential energy in a system.

4.1.a: Identify various types of potential energy (i.e., gravitational, elastic, chemical, electrostatic, nuclear).

4.1.b: Calculate the kinetic energy of an object given the velocity and mass of the object.

#### 4.2: Describe conservation of energy in terms of systems.

4.2.a: Describe a closed system in terms of its total energy.

4.2.b: Relate the transformations between kinetic and potential energy in a system (e.g., moving magnet induces electricity in a coil of wire, roller coaster, internal combustion engine).

4.2.c: Gather data and calculate the gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy of an object (e.g., pendulum, water flowing downhill, ball dropped from a height) and relate this to the conservation of energy of a system.

#### 4.3: Describe common energy transformations and the effect on availability of energy.

4.3.b: Investigate the transfer of heat energy by conduction, convection, and radiation.

4.3.d: Research and report on the transformation of energy in electrical generation plants (e.g., chemical to heat to electricity, nuclear to heat to mechanical to electrical, gravitational to kinetic to mechanical to electrical), and include energy losses during each transformation.

### 5: Students will understand the properties and applications of waves.

#### 5.1: Demonstrate an understanding of mechanical waves in terms of general wave properties.

5.1.b: Investigate and compare reflection, refraction, and diffraction of waves.

5.1.c: Provide examples of waves commonly observed in nature and/or used in technological applications.

5.1.d: Identify the relationship between the speed, wavelength, and frequency of a wave.

5.1.e: Explain the observed change in frequency of a mechanical wave coming from a moving object as it approaches and moves away (i.e., Doppler effect).

#### 5.2: Describe the nature of electromagnetic radiation and visible light.

5.2.d: Explain the observed change in frequency of an electromagnetic wave coming from a moving object as it approaches and moves away (i.e., Doppler effect, red/blue shift).

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.