### 1: Science is a human endeavor involving knowledge learned through inquiring about the natural world. Scientific claims are evaluated and knowledge changes as a result of using the abilities and understandings of inquiry. The pursuit of scientific knowledge is a continuous process involving diverse people throughout history. The practice of science and the development of technology are critical pursuits of our society.

#### 1.1: Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically-oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations, connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying the explanation.

1.1.1: Frame and refine questions that can be investigated scientifically, and generate testable hypotheses.

1.1.2: Design and conduct investigations with controlled variables to test hypotheses.

1.1.3: Accurately collect data through the selection and use of tools and techniques appropriate to the investigation. Construct tables, diagrams and graphs, showing relationships between two variables, to display and facilitate analysis of data. Compare and question results with and from other students.

1.1.4: Form explanations based on accurate and logical analysis of evidence. Revise the explanation using alternative descriptions, predictions, models and knowledge from other sources as well as results of further investigation.

1.1.5: Communicate scientific procedures, data, and explanations to enable the replication of results. Use computer technology to assist in communicating these results. Critical review is important in the analysis of these results.

1.1.6: Use mathematics, reading, writing, and technology in conducting scientific inquiries.

1.1.7: Relate that electrical energy carried by charges in a circuit is transferred to devices in the circuit and is usually changed into (transformed) different kinds of energy by these devices (e.g., light bulbs change electrical energy into light and heat energy, motors turn the electrical energy into energy of motion). Trace the flow of energy from electrical energy to other forms of energy, such as light. Express whether energy was transferred, transformed or both.

1.1.8: Construct both series and parallel circuits to investigate and describe how multiple devices in series or parallel (bulbs, motors) perform (dim versus bright, fast versus slow). Describe how the way the devices are connected affects the functioning (i.e., dim versus bright) of the device and relate this to how much electrical energy is received.

1.1.9: Conduct investigations on a moving object and make measurements of time and distance traveled and determine the average speed of moving objects.

1.1.10: Graph and interpret time versus distance graphs for constant speed. Use the graphs to describe how the position of an object changes in a time interval.

1.1.11: Describe how the speed of an object depends on the distance traveled and the travel time. Explain how the motion of an object can be described by its position, speed, and direction of motion.

1.1.13: Give examples of moving objects and identify the forces that act on these objects. Select examples where only one force acts on the object and examples where two or more forces act on the object. Explain that unbalanced forces acting on an object will change its speed, direction of motion or both.

1.1.14: Conduct investigations to describe how the relative directions of forces simultaneously acting on an object (reinforce or cancel each other) will determine how strongly the combination of these forces influences the motion of the object.

1.1.15: Conduct investigations and describe how a force can be directed to increase the speed of an object, decrease the speed of the object or change the direction in which the object moves.

1.1.18: Design a device that relies on the directional and/or mechanical advantage of a simple machine to perform a task (e.g., lift a weight, move a heavy object). Identify the forces and motions involved, the source of the energy used to complete the task, and how the energy is used by the simple machine.

1.1.19: Show how electrical energy carried by currents in wires can be used to create magnetic fields. Demonstrate how these fields exert magnetic forces on permanent magnets. Explain how these magnetic forces in electric motors are used to change the electrical energy into the energy of motion.

1.1.20: Use appropriate instruments and tools to identify the sedimentary rocks limestone, shale, and sandstone. Infer the environmental conditions in which these rocks formed.

1.1.23: Investigate and describe how factors such as abrasion, frost/ice wedging, temperature changes, and plant growth cause physical weathering of rocks. Infer the environment in which the sedimentary particles were formed based on the results of weathering.

1.1.25: Describe the process by which eroded materials can form horizontal layers of sedimentary rock.

1.1.26: Label and describe the functions of the basic parts of the circulatory system including the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries.

1.1.29: Label and describe the functions of the basic parts of the digestive tract including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, large intestine (colon), rectum and anus.

#### 1.2: The development of technology and advancement in science influence and drive each other forward.

1.2.1: Compare the differences in power usage in different electrical devices/appliances. Discuss which devices/appliances (i.e., washer, dryer, refrigerator, electric furnace) are manufactured to require less energy. Select one device/appliance, research different brands and their energy usage, determine which would be the better buy, and report on the findings.

1.2.2: Use knowledge of human body systems to synthesize research data and make informed decisions regarding personal and public health.

1.2.3: Research and report on how body systems are affected by lifestyle choices such as diet or exercise (for example lack of exercise leads to cardiovascular disease).

### 3: The flow of energy drives processes of change in all biological, chemical, physical, and geological systems. Energy stored in a variety of sources can be transformed into other energy forms, which influence many facets of our daily lives. The forms of energy involved and the properties of the materials involved influence the nature of the energy transformations and the mechanisms by which energy is transferred. The conservation of energy is a law that can be used to analyze and build understandings of diverse physical and biological systems.

#### 3.1: Energy takes many forms. These forms can be grouped into types of energy that are associated with the motion of mass (kinetic energy), and types of energy associated with the position of mass and with energy fields (potential energy).

3.1.1: List, as basic forms of energy, light, heat, sound, electrical, and energy of motion.

#### 3.2: Changes take place because of the transfer of energy. Energy is transferred to matter through the action of forces. Different forces are responsible for the transfer of the different forms of energy.

3.2.2: Relate that electrical energy carried by charges in a circuit is transferred to devices in the circuit and is usually changed into (transformed) different kinds of energy by these devices (e.g., light bulbs change electrical energy into light and heat energy, motors turn the electrical energy into energy of motion). Trace the flow of energy from electrical energy to other forms of energy, such as light. Express whether energy was transferred, transformed or both.

3.2.3: Construct both series and parallel circuits to investigate and describe how multiple devices in series or parallel (bulbs, motors) perform (dim versus bright, fast versus slow). Describe how the way the devices are connected affects the functioning (i.e., dim versus bright) of the device, and relate this to how much electrical energy is received.

3.2.4: Conduct investigations on a moving object and make measurements of time and distance traveled and determine the average speed of moving objects.

3.2.5: Graph and interpret distance versus time graphs for constant speed. Use the graphs to describe how the position of an object changes in a time interval.

3.2.6: Describe how the speed of an object depends on the distance traveled and the travel time. Explain how the motion of an object can be described by its position, speed, and direction of motion.

3.2.7: Explain that the earth will pull on all objects with a force called gravity that is directed inward toward the center of the Earth.

3.2.9: Give examples of moving objects and identify the forces that act on these objects. Select examples where only one force acts on the object and examples where two or more forces act on the object. Explain that unbalanced forces acting on an object will change its speed, direction of motion, or both.

3.2.11: Conduct investigations and describe how a force can be directed to increase the speed of an object, decrease the speed of the object or change the direction in which the object moves.

3.2.16: Design a device that relies on the directional and/or mechanical advantage of a simple machine to perform a task (e.g., lift a weight, move a heavy object). Identify the forces and motions involved, the source of the energy used to complete the task, and how the energy is used by the simple machine.

#### 3.3: Energy readily transforms from one form to another, but these transformations are not always reversible. The details of these transformations depend upon the initial form of the energy and the properties of the materials involved. Energy may transfer into or out of a system and it may change forms, but the total energy cannot change.

3.3.1: Show how electrical energy carried by currents in wires can be used to create magnetic fields. Demonstrate how these fields exert magnetic forces on permanent magnets.

#### 3.4: People utilize a variety of resources to meet the basic and specific needs of life. Some of these resources cannot be replaced. Other resources can be replenished or exist in such vast quantities they are in no danger of becoming depleted. Often the energy stored in resources must be transformed into more useful forms and transported over great distances before it can be helpful to us.

3.4.1: Compare the differences in power usage in different electrical devices/appliances. Discuss which devices /appliances (i.e., washer, dryer, refrigerator, electric furnace) are manufactured to require less energy. Select one device/appliance, research different brands and their energy usage, determine which would be the better buy, and report on the findings.

### 5: Earth's dynamic systems are made up of the solid earth (geosphere), the oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers and ice sheets (hydrosphere), the atmosphere, and organisms (biosphere). Interactions among these spheres have resulted in ongoing changes to the system. Some of these changes can be measured on a human time scale, but others occur so slowly, that they must be inferred from geological evidence.

#### 5.1: Earth's systems can be broken down into individual components which have observable measurable properties.

5.1.1: Use appropriate instruments and tools to identify the sedimentary rocks: limestone, shale, and sandstone. Infer the environmental conditions in which these rocks formed.

#### 5.2: Earth's components form systems. These systems continually interact at different rates of time, affecting the Earth locally and globally.

5.2.1: Investigate and describe how factors such as abrasion, frost/ice wedging, temperature changes, and plant growth cause physical weathering of rocks. Infer the environment in which the sedimentary particles were formed based on the results of weathering.

5.2.3: Describe the process by which eroded materials can form horizontal layers of sedimentary rock.

5.2.4: Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed through the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition.

5.2.5: Cite three lines of evidence such as the fit of coastlines, the similarity of rock type and contiguousness of bedding areas, and similarity of fossilized remains that indicate that the continents were once a large land mass.

### 6: The natural world is defined by organisms and life processes which conform to principles regarding conservation and transformation of matter and energy. Living organisms use matter and energy to build their structures and conduct their life processes, have mechanisms and behaviors to regulate their internal environments and to respond to changes in their surroundings. Knowledge about life processes can be applied to improving human health and well being.

#### 6.1: Living systems, from the organismic to the cellular level, demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function.

6.1.1: Explain that human body systems are comprised of organs (e.g., the heart, the stomach, and the lungs) that perform specific functions within one or more systems.

6.1.2: Label and describe the functions of the basic parts of the circulatory system including the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries.

6.1.5: Label and describe the functions of the basic parts of the digestive tract including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, large intestine (colon), rectum and anus.

6.1.6: Express how the human circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems work together to carry out life processes.

#### 6.2: All organisms transfer matter and convert energy from one form to another. Both matter and energy are necessary to build and maintain structures within the organism.

6.2.1: Trace how the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems interact to transport the food and oxygen required to provide energy for life processes.

#### 6.4: The life processes of organisms are affected by their interactions with each other and their environment, and may be altered by human manipulation.

6.4.1: Use knowledge of human body systems to synthesize research data and make informed decisions regarding personal and public health.

6.4.2: Research and report on how body systems are affected by lifestyle choices such as diet or exercise, for example lack of exercise leads to cardiovascular disease.

Correlation last revised: 5/9/2018

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