9.2: Physical Science

9.2.1: Matter The structure of the atom determines chemical properties of elements. Describe the relative charges, masses, and locations of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of an element.

Element Builder Explain the arrangement of the elements on the Periodic Table, including the relationships among elements in a given column or row.

Electron Configuration Explain that isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons and that some are unstable and emit particles and/or radiation.

Element Builder Chemical reactions involve the rearrangement of atoms as chemical bonds are broken and formed through transferring or sharing of electrons and the absorption or release of energy. Describe the role of valence electrons in the formation of chemical bonds.

Covalent Bonds
Electron Configuration
Ionic Bonds Explain how the rearrangement of atoms in a chemical reaction illustrates the law of conservation of mass.

Chemical Changes Describe a chemical reaction using words and symbolic equations.

Equilibrium and Concentration Relate exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions to temperature and energy changes.

Chemical Changes

9.2.2: Motion An object?s mass and the forces on it affect the motion of an object. Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F = ma).

Free-Fall Laboratory Use Newton?s universal law of gravitation to describe and calculate the attraction between massive objects based on the distance between them.

Gravitational Force
Pith Ball Lab

9.2.3: Energy Energy can be transformed within a system or transferred to other systems or the environment, but is always conserved. Calculate and explain the energy, work and power involved in energy transfers in a mechanical system.

2D Collisions
Pulley Lab Explain and calculate current, voltage and resistance, and describe energy transfers in simple electric circuits.

Advanced Circuits
Circuit Builder
Circuits Describe how an electric current produces a magnetic force, and how this interaction is used in motors and electromagnets to produce mechanical energy.

Magnetic Induction Describe the properties and uses of forms of electromagnetic radiation from radio frequencies through gamma radiation.

Herschel Experiment - Metric
Ripple Tank

9.2.4: Human Interaction with Physical Systems There are benefits, costs and risks to different means of generating and using energy. Describe the trade-offs involved when technological developments impact the way we use energy, natural resources, or synthetic materials.

Roller Coaster Physics

9.3: Earth and Space Science

9.3.1: Earth Structure and Processes The relationships among earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, fossil deposits, rock layers and ocean features provide evidence for the theory of plate tectonics. Compare and contrast the interaction of tectonic plates at convergent and divergent boundaries.

Plate Tectonics

9.3.2: Interdependence Within the Earth System The cycling of materials through different reservoirs of the Earth?s system is powered by the Earth?s sources of energy. Trace the cyclical movement of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

Carbon Cycle
Cell Energy Cycle
Pond Ecosystem

9.3.4: Human Interactions with the Earth System People consider potential benefits, costs and risks to make decisions on how they interact with natural systems. Explain how human activity and natural processes are altering the hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, including pollution, topography and climate.

Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
Pond Ecosystem

9.4: Life Science

9.4.1: Structure and Function in Living Systems Organisms use the interaction of cellular processes as well as tissues and organ systems to maintain homeostasis. Describe how the functions of individual organ systems are integrated to maintain homeostasis in an organism.

Human Homeostasis Cells and cell structures have specific functions that allow an organism to grow, survive and reproduce. Recognize that cells are composed primarily of a few elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur), and describe the basic molecular structures and the primary functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.

RNA and Protein Synthesis Recognize that the work of the cell is carried out primarily by proteins, most of which are enzymes, and that protein function depends on the amino acid sequence and the shape it takes as a consequence of the interactions between those amino acids.

RNA and Protein Synthesis Explain the function and importance of cell organelles for prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic cells as related to the basic cell processes of respiration, photosynthesis, protein synthesis and cell reproduction.

Cell Energy Cycle
Cell Structure
RNA and Protein Synthesis Compare and contrast passive transport (including osmosis and facilitated transport) with active transport, such as endocytosis and exocytosis.

Paramecium Homeostasis Explain the process of mitosis in the formation of identical new cells and maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.

Cell Division

9.4.2: Interdependence among Living Systems The interrelationship and interdependence of organisms generate dynamic biological communities in ecosystems. Describe factors that affect the carrying capacity of an ecosystem and relate these to population growth.

Food Chain
Rabbit Population by Season Explain how ecosystems can change as a result of the introduction of one or more new species.

Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors Matter cycles and energy flows through different levels of organization of living systems and the physical environment, as chemical elements are combined in different ways. Use words and equations to differentiate between the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in terms of energy flow, beginning reactants and end products.

Food Chain
Photosynthesis Lab

9.4.3: Evolution in Living Systems Genetic information found in the cell provides information for assembling proteins, which dictate the expression of traits in an individual. Explain the relationships among DNA, genes and chromosomes.

Human Karyotyping In the context of a monohybrid cross, apply the terms phenotype, genotype, allele, homozygous and heterozygous.

Chicken Genetics
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
Mouse Genetics (Two Traits) Describe the process of DNA replication and the role of DNA and RNA in assembling protein molecules.

RNA and Protein Synthesis Variation within a species is the natural result of new inheritable characteristics occurring from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells. Use concepts from Mendel?s Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment to explain how sorting and recombination (crossing over) of genes during sexual reproduction (meiosis) increases the occurrence of variation in a species.

Mouse Genetics (One Trait) Evolution by natural selection is a scientific explanation for the history and diversity of life on Earth. Use scientific evidence, including the fossil record, homologous structures, and genetic and/or biochemical similarities, to show evolutionary relationships among species.

Human Evolution - Skull Analysis Explain how competition for finite resources and the changing environment promotes natural selection on offspring survival, depending on whether the offspring have characteristics that are advantageous or disadvantageous in the new environment.

Natural Selection
Rainfall and Bird Beaks - Metric

9.4.4: Human Interactions with Living Systems Human activity has consequences on living organisms and ecosystems. Describe the social, economic and ecological risks and benefits of changing a natural ecosystem as a result of human activity.

Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
Pond Ecosystem

Correlation last revised: 9/16/2020

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.