### MA-HS-1: High school students should enter high school with a strong background in rational numbers and numerical operations and expand this to real numbers. This becomes the foundation for algebra and working with algebraic symbols. They understand large and small numbers and their representations, powers and roots. They compare and contrast properties of numbers and number systems and develop strategies to estimate the results of operations on real numbers. Students will use, and understand the limitations of, graphing calculators and computer spreadsheets appropriately as learning tools.

#### MA-HS-1.1: Number Sense

MA-HS-1.1.1: Students will compare real numbers using order relations (less than, greater than, equal to) and represent problems using real numbers.

MA-HS-1.1.3: Students will use scientific notation to express very large or very small quantities.

#### MA-HS-1.3: Number Operations

MA-HS-1.3.1: Students will solve real-world and mathematical problems to specified accuracy levels by simplifying expressions with real numbers involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, absolute value, integer exponents, roots (square, cube) and factorials.

MA-HS-1.3.2: Students will:

MA-HS-1.3.2.a: describe and extend arithmetic and geometric sequences;

MA-HS-1.3.2.b: determine a specific term of a sequence given an explicit formula;

MA-HS-1.3.2.c: determine an explicit rule for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence and

MA-HS-1.3.2.d: apply sequences to solve real-world problems.

MA-HS-1.3.3: Students will write an explicit rule for the nth term of a geometric sequence.

#### MA-HS-1.4: Ratios and Proportional Reasoning

MA-HS-1.4.1: Students will apply ratios, percents and proportional reasoning to solve real-world problems (e.g., those involving slope and rate, percent of increase and decrease) and will explain how slope determines a rate of change in linear functions representing real-world problems.

#### MA-HS-1.5: Properties of Numbers and Operations

MA-HS-1.5.1: Students will identify real number properties (commutative properties of addition and multiplication, associative properties of addition and multiplication, distributive property of multiplication over addition and subtraction, identity properties of addition and multiplication and inverse properties of addition and multiplication) when used to justify a given step in simplifying an expression or solving an equation.

### MA-HS-2: High school students continue to measure and estimate measurements including fractions and decimals. They use formulas to find surface area and volume. They use US Customary and metric units of measurement. They use the Pythagorean theorem and other right triangle relationships to solve real-world problems.

#### MA-HS-2.1: Measuring Physical Attributes

MA-HS-2.1.1: Students will determine the surface area and volume of right rectangular prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres in real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-HS-2.1.2: Students will describe how a change in one or more dimensions of a geometric figure affects the perimeter, area and volume of the figure.

MA-HS-2.1.3: Students will apply definitions and properties of right triangle relationships (right triangle trigonometry and the Pythagorean theorem) to determine length and angle measures to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-HS-2.1.4: Students will apply special right triangles and the converse of the Pythagorean theorem to solve real-world problems.

### MA-HS-3: High school students expand analysis of two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional shapes. They translate shapes in a coordinate plane. They extend work with congruent and similar figures, including proportionality.

#### MA-HS-3.1: Shapes and Relationships

MA-HS-3.1.1: Students will analyze and apply spatial relationships (not using Cartesian coordinates) among points, lines and planes (e.g., betweenness of points, midpoint, segment length, collinear, coplanar, parallel, perpendicular, skew).

MA-HS-3.1.3: Students will analyze and apply angle relationships (e.g., linear pairs, vertical, complementary, supplementary, corresponding and alternate interior angles) in real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-HS-3.1.4: Students will use angle relationships to prove basic theorems.

MA-HS-3.1.5: Students will classify and apply properties of two-dimensional geometric figures (e.g., number of sides, vertices, length of sides, sum of interior and exterior angle measures).

MA-HS-3.1.6: Students will know the definitions and basic properties of a circle and will use them to prove basic theorems and solve problems.

MA-HS-3.1.7: Students will solve real-world and mathematical problems by applying properties of triangles (e.g., Triangle Sum theorem and Isosceles Triangle theorems).

MA-HS-3.1.8: Students will use the properties of triangles to prove basic theorems.

MA-HS-3.1.11: Students will visualize solids and surfaces in three-dimensional space when given two-dimensional representations (e.g., nets, multiple views) and create two-dimensional representations for the surfaces of three-dimensional objects.

MA-HS-3.1.12: Students will apply the concepts of congruence and similarity to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-HS-3.1.13: Students will prove triangles congruent and similar.

#### MA-HS-3.3: Coordinate Geometry

MA-HS-3.3.1: Students will apply algebraic concepts and graphing in the coordinate plane to analyze and solve problems (e.g., finding the final coordinates for a specified polygon, midpoints, between-ness of points, parallel and perpendicular lines, the distance between two points, the slope of a segment).

#### MA-HS-3.4: Foundational Statements

MA-HS-3.4.1: Students will identify definitions, axioms and theorems, explain the necessity for them and of and give examples of them.

MA-HS-3.4.3: Students will be able to perform constructions such as a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line, the perpendicular bisector of a line segment and the bisector of an angle.

### MA-HS-4: High school students extend data representations, interpretations and conclusions. They describe data distributions in multiple ways and connect data gathering issues with data interpretation issues. They relate curve of best fit with two-variable data and determine line of best fit for a given set of data. They distinguish between combinations and permutations and compare and contrast theoretical and experimental probability.

#### MA-HS-4.1: Data Representations

MA-HS-4.1.2: Students will construct data displays for data with no more than two variables.

#### MA-HS-4.2: Characteristics of Data Sets

MA-HS-4.2.1: Students will describe and compare data distributions and make inferences from the data based on the shapes of graphs, measures of center (mean, median, mode) and measures of spread (range, standard deviation).

MA-HS-4.2.2: Students will know the characteristics of the Gaussian normal distribution (bell-shaped curve).

MA-HS-4.2.3: Students will:

MA-HS-4.2.3.a: identify an appropriate curve of best fit (linear, quadratic, exponential) for a set of two-variable data;

MA-HS-4.2.3.b: determine a line of best fit equation for a set of linear two-variable data and

MA-HS-4.2.3.c: apply a line of best fit to make predictions within and beyond a given set of two-variable data.

MA-HS-4.2.4: Students will recognize when arguments based on data confuse correlation and causation.

#### MA-HS-4.3: Experiments and Samples

MA-HS-4.3.1: Students will recognize potential for bias resulting from the misuse of sampling methods (e.g., non-random sampling, polling only a specific group of people, using limited or extremely small sample sizes) and explain why these samples can lead to inaccurate inferences.

MA-HS-4.3.2: Students will design simple experiments or investigations to collect data to answer questions of interest.

MA-HS-4.3.3: Students will explain the differences between randomized experiments and observational studies.

#### MA-HS-4.4: Probability

MA-HS-4.4.1: Students will:

MA-HS-4.4.1.a: determine theoretical and experimental (from given data) probabilities;

MA-HS-4.4.1.b: make predictions and draw inferences from probabilities;

MA-HS-4.4.1.c: compare theoretical and experimental probabilities and

MA-HS-4.4.1.d: determine probabilities involving replacement and non-replacement.

MA-HS-4.4.2: Students will recognize and identify the differences between combinations and permutations and use them to count discrete quantities.

MA-HS-4.4.3: Students will represent probabilities in multiple ways, such as fractions, decimals, percentages and geometric area models.

MA-HS-4.4.4: Students will explain how the law of large numbers can be applied in simple examples.

### MA-HS-5: High school students extend analysis and use of functions and focus on linear, quadratic, absolute value and exponential functions. They explore parametric changes on graphs of functions. They use rules and properties to simplify algebraic expressions. They combine simple rational expressions and combine simple polynomial expressions. They factor polynomial expressions and quadratics of the form 1x² + bx +c.

#### MA-HS-5.1: Patterns, Relations and Functions

MA-HS-5.1.1: Students will identify multiple representations (tables, graphs, equations) of functions (linear, quadratic, absolute value, exponential) in real-world or mathematical problems.

MA-HS-5.1.2: Students will identify, relate and apply representations (graphs, equations, tables) of a piecewise function (such as long distance telephone rates) from mathematical or real-world information.

MA-HS-5.1.3: Students will demonstrate how equations and graphs are models of the relationship between two real-world quantities (e.g., the relationship between degrees Celsius and degrees Fahrenheit).

MA-HS-5.1.4: Students will recognize and solve problems that can be modeled using an exponential function, such as compound interest problems.

MA-HS-5.1.5: Students will:

MA-HS-5.1.5.a: determine if a relation is a function;

MA-HS-5.1.5.c: determine the slope and intercepts of a linear function;

MA-HS-5.1.5.d: determine the maximum, minimum, and intercepts (roots/zeros) of a quadratic function and

MA-HS-5.1.7: Students will apply and use direct and inverse variation to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-HS-5.1.8: Students will identify the changes and explain how changes in parameters affect graphs of functions (linear, quadratic, absolute value, exponential) (e.g., compare y = x2, y = 2x2, y = (x-4)2, and y = x2+3).

#### MA-HS-5.2: Variables, Expressions, and Operations

MA-HS-5.2.1: Students will apply order of operations, real number properties (identity, inverse, commutative, associative, distributive, closure) and rules of exponents (integer) to simplify algebraic expressions.

MA-HS-5.2.3: Students will:

MA-HS-5.2.3.a: add, subtract and multiply polynomial expressions;

MA-HS-5.2.3.b: factor polynomial expressions using the greatest common monomial factor and

MA-HS-5.2.4: Students will factor quadratic polynomials, such as perfect square trinomials and quadratic polynomials of the form ax² + bx + c when a is not equal to 1 and b and c are integers.

#### MA-HS-5.3: Equations and Inequalities

MA-HS-5.3.1: Students will model, solve and graph first degree, single variable equations and inequalities, including absolute value, based in real-world and mathematical problems and graph the solutions on a number line.

MA-HS-5.3.2: Students will solve for a specified variable in a multivariable equation.

MA-HS-5.3.3: Students will model, solve and graph first degree, two-variable equations and inequalities in real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-HS-5.3.4: Students will model, solve and graph systems of two linear equations in real-world and mathematical problems.

MA-HS-5.3.5: Students will write, graph, and solve systems of two linear inequalities based on real-world or mathematical problems and interpret the solution.

MA-HS-5.3.6: Students will model, solve and graph quadratic equations in real-world and mathematical problems.

Correlation last revised: 5/11/2018

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